CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
BOOK SIXTEENTH-THE PEOPLE AND THE KINGS.
CHAPTER XCIV.--THE FREE CITIES.
Municipal System of Rome.-The Empire resolved
into Cities.-They fall under Feudalism.-Manner of
Life within the Corporate Towns.-How the Mediaeval
Towns were built.-Character of the Burgesses.-Man-
ner of Municipal Government.-Officeof Burgomaster.
-A Soldier Citizenship.-Enterprises and Industries of
the Burgesses.-Their Mental Characteristics.-Con-
trary Qualities.-The City during the Crusades.-The
Burgesses a Trades-people.-Sentiments of the Cru-
saders.-Antecedents of an Insurrection.-The Cities
revolt.-Character of the Struggle.-The Burgesses
Generally Triumphant.-Charters of Freedom granted.
-Emancipation of the Commons.--The Beginning of
Modern Democracy.-The People against the Kings.-
Cause of the Reduction of Feudalism.--The System
pressed between Royalty and Democracy.-Beginning
of the Italian Republics.-Founding of Venice.-Char-
acter of the Ducal Government.-Capital on the.Rialto.
-Venice under the Eastern Emperors.-Episode of St.
Mark's Bones.-Vicissitudes of the City.-Growth of
the Venetian Power.-Venice during the Crusades.-
Ceremony of marrying the Adriatic.-Venice remodeled.
-Doge Dandolo and the Crusaders.-Extent of the
City's Power.-Her War with Genoa.-Revolutions
and Decline of the City.-Quotation from Byron's
Marino Faliero.-Primitive Milan.-Her Early His-
tory.-Becomes the Seat of German InHuence in Italy.
-Guelph and Ghibelline.-The Delia Torre and the
Visconti.-Genoa.-Her Early Vicissitudes.-The City
under the Saracens.--They are expelled.-The Conflict
with Pisa.-Genoa in the Crusades.-Subdues Elba.-
In Rivalry with Venice.--Makes Alliance with Con-
stantinople.-In War with Venice in:the East.-Naval
Battles.--Causes of the Decline of the City.-Rise of
Pisa.-Early History of the City.-Conquests of the
Pisans.--Rivalry with Genoa.-The City during the
Crusades.--Beginnings of Florence.-tier Subjection to
the Barbarians.-Character of the Government.-Strifes
ofGuelphs and Ghibellines.-Intellectual Greatness of
the Florentinians.-Revival of Letters.-Dante.-Rise
of the Medici.:-Their Attempted Assassination.-Giov-
anni Medici elected Pope.-Other Free Cities of Italy
and France.-Their Place and Influence in History,
CHAPTER XCV.-FRANCE IN THE FOUR- TEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES.
Accession of Philip the Fair.-Barbarous War of
France wifh England.-Intrigues of Philip with the Flem-
ings.--Charles of Valois invades Flanders.-TheCoun'
try subdued by Perfidy.--Successful revolt ofthe Flem-
ings.-Peace concluded.-Philip's Quarrel with Boni-
face.-The Colonna. Family.-Insult to Boniface.-The
Papacy at Avignon.--Disaster in Lyons.-Philip exter-
minates the Knights Templars.- End of de Molay.-
Repression of Feudalism.-The States-General.-Louis
X.-The Serfs emancipated.-Second Invasion of Flan-
ders.-The Salic Law applied.-Reigns of Philip V. and
Charles IV.-The Latter expels the Lombard Bankers.
-Conspiracy against Edward II.-Accession of the
House of Valois.-Philip VI.-Claim of Edward of Eng-
land.-He goes to War with France.-Battle of Bou-
vines.-Killing ofthe Breton Lords.-A Desliltory War.
-Battle of Crecy.-Rout of the French.-Edward
takes Calais.-Accession of John.-Execution of d'Eu.
-Charles of Navarre.-Renewal df the War.-The
Black Prince.-Battle of Poitiers.-Capture of John.-
Difficulties of the Dauphin.-The Jacquerie.-Civil
War with Charles of Navarre.-Siege of Paris.-Charles
retires.-Second Invasion by Edward.-The Storm at
Bretigny.-King John ransomed.-He would be a Cru-
sader.-Conduct ^f his Sons.-John returns to England.
-Superiority of the English Soldiery.-Petrarch quoted.
-Charles the Wise.-His Policy.-War in Castile.-
Pedro obtains the Crown.--Is killed.-The Black Prince
in the South.-His Peath.-Charles of Navarre a Crim-
inal.-Dress, Manners, and Culture.-Charles VI.-
Vol. IV, iii