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CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

CONTENTS .......

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

INTRODUCTION. ....

XIII- XVI

xvn- xix

BOOK SIXTEENTH-THE PEOPLE AND THE KINGS.

CHAPTER XCIV.--THE FREE CITIES.

Municipal System of Rome.-The Empire resolved

into Cities.-They fall under Feudalism.-Manner of

Life within the Corporate Towns.-How the Mediaeval

Towns were built.-Character of the Burgesses.-Man-

ner of Municipal Government.-Officeof Burgomaster.

-A Soldier Citizenship.-Enterprises and Industries of

the Burgesses.-Their Mental Characteristics.-Con-

trary Qualities.-The City during the Crusades.-The

Burgesses a Trades-people.-Sentiments of the Cru-

saders.-Antecedents of an Insurrection.-The Cities

revolt.-Character of the Struggle.-The Burgesses

Generally Triumphant.-Charters of Freedom granted.

-Emancipation of the Commons.--The Beginning of

Modern Democracy.-The People against the Kings.-

Cause of the Reduction of Feudalism.--The System

pressed between Royalty and Democracy.-Beginning

of the Italian Republics.-Founding of Venice.-Char-

acter of the Ducal Government.-Capital on the.Rialto.

-Venice under the Eastern Emperors.-Episode of St.

Mark's Bones.-Vicissitudes of the City.-Growth of

the Venetian Power.-Venice during the Crusades.-

Ceremony of marrying the Adriatic.-Venice remodeled.

-Doge Dandolo and the Crusaders.-Extent of the

City's Power.-Her War with Genoa.-Revolutions

and Decline of the City.-Quotation from Byron's

Marino Faliero.-Primitive Milan.-Her Early His-

tory.-Becomes the Seat of German InHuence in Italy.

-Guelph and Ghibelline.-The Delia Torre and the

Visconti.-Genoa.-Her Early Vicissitudes.-The City

under the Saracens.--They are expelled.-The Conflict

with Pisa.-Genoa in the Crusades.-Subdues Elba.-

In Rivalry with Venice.--Makes Alliance with Con-

stantinople.-In War with Venice in:the East.-Naval

Battles.--Causes of the Decline of the City.-Rise of

Pisa.-Early History of the City.-Conquests of the

Pisans.--Rivalry with Genoa.-The City during the

Crusades.--Beginnings of Florence.-tier Subjection to

the Barbarians.-Character of the Government.-Strifes

ofGuelphs and Ghibellines.-Intellectual Greatness of

the Florentinians.-Revival of Letters.-Dante.-Rise

of the Medici.:-Their Attempted Assassination.-Giov-

anni Medici elected Pope.-Other Free Cities of Italy

and France.-Their Place and Influence in History,

1443-1457

CHAPTER XCV.-FRANCE IN THE FOUR- TEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES.

Accession of Philip the Fair.-Barbarous War of

France wifh England.-Intrigues of Philip with the Flem-

ings.--Charles of Valois invades Flanders.-TheCoun'

try subdued by Perfidy.--Successful revolt ofthe Flem-

ings.-Peace concluded.-Philip's Quarrel with Boni-

face.-The Colonna. Family.-Insult to Boniface.-The

Papacy at Avignon.--Disaster in Lyons.-Philip exter-

minates the Knights Templars.- End of de Molay.-

Repression of Feudalism.-The States-General.-Louis

X.-The Serfs emancipated.-Second Invasion of Flan-

ders.-The Salic Law applied.-Reigns of Philip V. and

Charles IV.-The Latter expels the Lombard Bankers.

-Conspiracy against Edward II.-Accession of the

House of Valois.-Philip VI.-Claim of Edward of Eng-

land.-He goes to War with France.-Battle of Bou-

vines.-Killing ofthe Breton Lords.-A Desliltory War.

-Battle of Crecy.-Rout of the French.-Edward

takes Calais.-Accession of John.-Execution of d'Eu.

-Charles of Navarre.-Renewal df the War.-The

Black Prince.-Battle of Poitiers.-Capture of John.-

Difficulties of the Dauphin.-The Jacquerie.-Civil

War with Charles of Navarre.-Siege of Paris.-Charles

retires.-Second Invasion by Edward.-The Storm at

Bretigny.-King John ransomed.-He would be a Cru-

sader.-Conduct ^f his Sons.-John returns to England.

-Superiority of the English Soldiery.-Petrarch quoted.

-Charles the Wise.-His Policy.-War in Castile.-

Pedro obtains the Crown.--Is killed.-The Black Prince

in the South.-His Peath.-Charles of Navarre a Crim-

inal.-Dress, Manners, and Culture.-Charles VI.-

Vol. IV, iii