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1362 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

sent forth their bands of warrior knights

to join the armies of Capet and Hohenstaufen.

The Emperor established his headquarters at Ratisbon. Here were gathered his

dukes and barons, armed for the distant

fray. Hither came Bishop Otho, of Frisigen; Duke Frederick Barbarossa, of Suabia, nephew of Conrad; the Marquis of Montferrat; the Duke of Bohemia, and

many other dukes and barons, brave and

notable. A hundred thousand warriors were

here collected, and, putting himself at the

head, the Emperor began his march to the

East.

Emperor Emanuel Comnenus, grandson

of Alexius, was now ruler of the Greeks

of Byzantium, and to him ambassadors

were sent by the crusading chiefs, announcing their approach to Constantinople. Many

were the professions of friendship made

by the wily Emperor of the Greeks to the

hardy warriors of Europe, and many were

the secret messages which he at the same

time sent to the Asiatic sultans, apprising them of the movements of their foes.

It became the policy of Comnenus, as it

had been of his grandsire, to play double

with the Christian and the Saracen, to the

end that his own interests might in any

event be subserved.

When the Crusaders at last reached Constantinople, they were received with outward

blandishments and inward hostility. Conrad

and his chiefs had discernment enough to perceive the actual sentiments with which they

were entertained; and, although it had

been agreed that the German army should

await the approach of the French at the

Eastern capital, so keen was the resentment of the leaders that they hastened

their departure, and crossed the Bosphorus

into Asia.

No sooner were the Crusaders beyond

the sea than the hostility of the Greeks,

which had been hidden under their duplicity until now, began to show itself in

a manner not to be mistaken. All the

towns were shut and barred against the

army of Conrad, and the Crusaders began

to suffer for provisions. Greek hucksters

from the top of the walls bargained with

the hungry knights outside, to whom they

let down baskets in which to receive the

silver paid for their meal-and the meal

was found to be adulterated with an equal

part of lime; nor did the impudent

traders, from whom the German chiefs

were obliged to secure their supplies, forbear to utter against their customers such

taunts and insults as plentiful arrogance

behind a wall might safely discharge at

hungry valor on the outside.

Worse than this was the perfidy

of the Greek guides, whom Comnenus

sent out to lead the Crusaders to-destruction. Knowing well the lines of march,

these supple, faith-breaking rascals conveyed

to the Saracen scouts full information of

the course to be taken by the German army.

So, in addition to misguiding the forces

of Conrad, the Greeks purposely led them

into dangerous places, where ambuscades

had been carefully laid by the enemy. At

last, however, the river Meander was reached,

and there, on the opposite bank, the Moslems had gathered in great force to resist

the passage. And now followed one of the