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condemned to perpetual imprisonment in the

fortress of Cardiff. William, the son of

Duke Robert, fled for his life and sought

refuge with the king of France. It was the

protection of this fugitive prince by Louis

the Fat that brought on a war between

that monarch and King Henry. A battle

was fought between their armies at Brenneville, in which the English were victorious,

but the victory was neither bloody nor decisive. Indeed, it was the peculiarity of the

feudal wars in the West not to kill but to

capture, for the ransom of distinguished captives was more profitable to the victor than

the brief exhibition of dead bodies on the

battle-field. Only three Knights are said to

have been slain in the battle of Brenneville.

It happened that at the time of the conflict

Pope Calixtus II., who had escaped from the

disturbances of Italy, was sojourning in

France. The potentate was greatly grieved

at the war which had broken out between his

subjects on the two sides of the Channel. He

accordingly mediated between them, and the

two kings agreed to be at peace.

In the year 1124 hostilities broke out a

second time between the two kingdoms.

The Emperor, Henry V., of Germany, had

in the mean time married the Princess Matilda, daughter of Henry, and the English king now called upon his powerful father-in-law to aid him in his war with Louis the Fat.

The Emperor gladly accepted the invitation, for he had many causes of enmity

against King Louis. The latter raised a

powerful army of two hundred thousand

men, but before actual hostilities began

Henry V. died, and the war was thus averted.

As to Prince William, Louis bestowed on

him the earldom of Flanders as a recompense

for the loss of Normandy, but the young

earl presently died from the effects of a neglected wound.

In 1129 King Louis had his eldest son

Philip, who was the pride and expectancy of

the state, crowned with himself as heir apparent to the throne. Two years afterwards,

however, the prince died, and such was the

effect of the loss upon his father that the king

was inconsolable and refrained for a long

time from public duties. In the following year the succession was

established to Prince Louis, the king's second son, then but twelve years of age. Two

years afterwards, borne down with excessive

corpulency, the monarch was attacked with

a malady, and, believing his end at hand, he

sought diligently to be reconciled with all his

foes. Destiny, however, had appointed him

three additional years of life. He died in

1137, and was sincerely lamented by his


In accordance with the previous settlement,

the crown passed peaceably to Prince Louis,

who 'took the title of Louis VII. It was his

good fortune to have for his minister the Abbe Segur, one of the ablest and most scholarly

men of the kingdom. With such a support the

young king found opportunity in the early

years of his reign to indulge his natural love

for chivalrous amusements, to which he devoted most of his time. His first serious business was in 1142, when he became involved in

a quarrel with the Pope respecting the right

of investiture in the French church. He also

alienated from himself Earl Thibaud of Champagne, whose sister had been married to the

Count of Vermandois. Him the king induced

to divorce his wife, and to wed a sister of

Queen Eleanor. Thibaud was so greatly incensed that he took up arms, and the king, in

order to suppress the insurrection, marched a

large force into Champagne, and laid siege to

the castle of Vitry. Meeting with a stubborn

resistance, he set fire to the fortress, and by

an unexpected spread of the conflagration the

town was wrapped in flames. A church in

which thirteen hundred human beings had

taken refuge was a part of the holocaust.

The king, who had not intended that the

fire should do so horrible a work, was near

enough to hear the shrieks of the dying, and

was seized with remorse and terror. Never

afterwards did he recover from the shock, and

the work of pacifying his conscience became

henceforth his chief concern. It was while rubbish-encumbered streets a swine ran against

his horse, threw him, and fatally crushed the

rider. The king thereupon issued an edict that

swine should not be allowed to run at large in the

streets; but the proclamation was so seriously resisted by the monks of St. Antoine that the order

was so modified as to give their sacred pigs the

freedom of the city, on condition that said pigs

should wear bells! Such was Paris!