Page 1347

1347 THE CRUSADES-THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM.

footing further west. They sought a refuge

first in Crete, then in Messina, then in the

mainland of Italy, and, finally, in 1530, were

given the island of Malta by the Emperor,

Charles V. This sea-born possession they

converted into a fortress, which, in spite of

the most strenuous efforts of the Turks, was

held by the knights until 1798, when it was

taken by Bonaparte.

The second of the great orders of knighthood was originally known as the Knights or The Temple of Solomon, and afterwards as Knights Templars, or Knights of the Red Cross. Under these various designations they ran a briefer but more glorious

career than the Hospitallers, by whom they

were at first generously aided and afterwards bitterly opposed. The founding of

the Order of the Temple dates to the year

1117. Two French knights, Hugues des

Paiens and Geoffrey of Saint-Omer, perceiving the hardships to which Christian

travelers were exposed in and about the

Holy City, took upon themselves the duty

of conducting the pilgrims who journeyed

between Jerusalem and the Jordan. This

charitable office soon gained a reputation

for the humble warrior-guides, and they

were joined by seven others, like minded

with themselves. An organization was effected

under the benevolent patronage of the patriarch of the city. The members bound themselves by the usual monastic vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty; and to these two

others were added, to defend the Holy Sepulcher and to protect the way-faring pilgrims

in Palestine. Such was the humble beginning

of the Order.

At the first the Knights of Saint John,

now in the flush of their heroic virtues,

lent aid and encouragement to the new

society of brothers. Nothing was to be

feared from a humble fraternity known by

the name of the "Poor Soldiers of the Holy

City." Nothing could exceed the lowliness

of the meek knights who founded the brotherhood. Hugues and Geoffrey had one horse

between them, and him they rode together

on their first missions of benevolence. The

first members were given a lodging by Baldwin II, who assigned them quarters in his

palace on the site of the ancient temple.

Their first armory was established in a church

near by, and here were stored their first

knightly weapons. The first chapter was

limited to nine members; but this limitation

was removed by the council of Troyes in 1127.

At this assembly St. Bernard, of Clairvaux,

was commissioned to draw up a suitable code

for the government of the body, and to devise

an appropriate garb. The dress chosen was in

strong contrast with that of the Hospitallers,

consisting of a white tunic and mantle, with a

red cross on the left breast. The rule of conduct and discipline was approved in 1128 by

Pope Honorius II. The principal articles were

these: The Knights were bound to recite vocal prayers at certain hours; to abstain from meats four days in the week; to refrain from hunting and hawking; to defend with their lives the mysteries of the Christian

faith; to observe and maintain the Seven Sacraments of the Church, the fourteen articles of faith, the creeds of the apostles, and of Athanasius; to uphold

the doctrines of the Two Testaments, including the interpretations of the Fathers,

the unity of God and the trinity of his

persons, and the virginity of Mary both

before and after the birth of her Son; to

go beyond the seas when called to do

so in defense of the cause; to run not from

the foe unless assailed by more than three

Infidels at once.

Such was the nucleus of the Order. Humility was one of the first principles of the

membership. The helmet of the Templar

should have no crest-his beard should not be

cut-his demeanor should be that of a servant