Page 1343

1343 THE CRUSADES-THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM.

killed in battle. Boemund finally effected

his escape and soon afterwards engaged in

hostilities with the Eastern Empire. Unsuccessful in this war he returned to Tarento,

and there, in his old age, sat brooding and

despondent amid the scenes of his boyhood.

His restless nature, tormented with the

vision of impossible activities, gave way to

gloom, and he died of despair.

Of the heroic companions of Godfrey,

there now remained in the East only King

Baldwin and Baldwin du Bourg, prince

of Edessa. The former was sonless, and

reason and preference both indicated the

latter as his successor to the crown of Jerusalem. In the year 1118 the king died and

Baldwin du Bourg came to the throne with

the title of Baldwin II. On his accession he

transferred the Principality of Edessa to

Joscelyn de Courtenay, a noble knight of

France, who had gone to Asia Minor in the

wake of the First Crusade.

In the mean time, Count Foulque, of

Anjou, father of that Geoffrey Plantagenet

who gave a race of kings to England, falling into profound melancholy on account

of the death of his wife, would fain distract

his thoughts from his grief by taking the

cross and going on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He accordingly left his province to

the care of his son and departed for the

East. On reaching the Holy City he became greatly admired for his qualities of

mind and person. Nor was it long till he

found a panacea for his sorrow in the acquaintance of the Princess Millicent, daughter

of Baldwin II. Her he wooed and won, and

when her father died he received and wore the

crown rather as the husband of Millicent than

in his own right. His son was named for his

maternal grandfather, and afterwards reigned

with the title of Baldwin III.

The principal event of the reign of Baldwin du Bourg was the siege and capture of

Tyre. This great feat was accomplished

in the year 1124, and chiefly by the aid of

the Venetian fleet sent out by the Doge Ordelafo Falieri. Before engaging in the

enterprise, however, this thrifty ruler stipulated that he should receive the sovereignty

of one-third of the city as the price of his

services. Already the Italian princes, especially those who held authority in the

maritime Republics, had learned the value of their services to the Crusaders, and were

not slow to turn their advantage to a profitable account. Henceforth-though not less

zealous than others in proclaiming the disinterested motives by which they were actuated in sending out their fleets against the

Moslems-they ever took care to extort from

those whom they aided exorbitant pay for

their service. The squadron of Falieri arrived

on the Phoenician coast, and the city of Tyre

was obliged, after a five months' siege, to capitulate. The new conquest was erected into

an archbishopric and added to the patriarchate

of Jerusalem. Thus, in the last year of the

first quarter of the twelfth century the most

opulent city on the Syrian coast, being also

the last stronghold of the Moslems in Palestine,

was won by the Crusaders and annexed to

their dominions.

This is the date of the greatest power

and influence of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The Holy Land was now all recovered from

the Infidels. Neither the Turks from the

direction of Baghdad, nor the Fatimites

from the side of Egypt, were able for the time

to shake the foundations of the Christian

state. From the Mediterranean to the

desert of Arabia, and from Beyrut to the

Gulf of Sinai, the country acknowledged the

sway of Baldwin II. Besides the large territory thus defined the County of Tripoli

under Bertrand, and the Principalities of Edessa and Antioch were as distinctly Christian states as was Jerusalem itself, and

throughout the whole of these countries the

feudal institutions of Western Europe were

established on what appeared to be an enduring basis.

The Christian kingdom of Palestine was

divided into the four great fiefs of Jaffa,

Galilee, Cesarea, and Tripoli, and over each

was set a baron who was the vassal of the

king. The one fatal weakness of the situation

lay in the fact that while a constant stream

of pilgrim warriors was setting towards Jerusalem, another stream fully as copious was

flowing back into Europe. Even at the time

of greatest solidity and peace the number of

knights and soldiers resident in Palestine was

never sufficient to defend the country in the

event of a formidable invasion by the Moslems.

It was estimated that the regular force of

knights whom as his vassals Baldwin II might

call into the field did not exceed two thousand