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1342 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

the ranks of the foe. The cities of Cesarea,

Sidon, Tripoli, and Acre were quickly taken,

and the frontiers of the kingdom widened

and established on all sides.

The forces of the king were in the meantime augmented by almost constant arrivals

from Europe. Several bodies of warriors,

who were drawn in the wake of the First

Crusade, reached the Holy City in the first

years of the new century, and joined the

victorious standard of those who had preceded them. Now it was that Stephen of

Blois and Hugh of Vermandois returned

to the scenes of former days, shame faced

for their abandonment of the cause, and.

eager to retrieve their honor. The dukes

of Aquitaine and Bavaria, and the counts

of Burgundy, Vendome, Nevers, and Parma,

all envious of the fame achieved by their

brethren in the East, assumed the cross

and arrived with their knights in Palestine.

So long and full of hardships was the march

through Eastern Europe and Asia Minor,

that those who survived were already veterans before reaching their destination, and

the armies of Baldwin were thus replenished

by a class of warriors scarcely inferior to

the war-hardened Crusaders of the first

expedition.

Another source of strength to the kingdom was the constant arrival on the Phoenician coast of fleets from Genoa and other European ports. A readier communication

was thus maintained with the parent states.

These armaments cooperated with the land

forces in the subjugation of the maritime

districts of Syria. As early as 1104, Beyrut

and Serepta were conquered, partly through

the aid of the Genoese squadron. A few

years later, when the artaaies of Baldwin

were engaged in the siege of Sidon, two

fleets, manned by Scandinavian Crusaders,

arrived from the Baltic, and rendered important service in the reduction of the city.

To this epoch belongs the last of the exploits of Raymond of Toulouse. Before

the capture of the Phoenician cities, he had

acted as guide and leader to a band of French

knights on their way through Asia Minor

to Jerusalem. Obtaining an ascendancy

over them, he induced them to join him

in the conquest of Tortosa, on the coast

of Syria. A new principality was thus founded,

with Raymond for its ruler. He employed

his own knights from Provence in enlarging the borders of his state, and presently

undertook the reduction of Tripoli; but,

before his object could be reached, the veteran warrior of Toulouse died. The work

of subjugation, however, was continued by

King Baldwin, assisted by all the Latin

princes of the East. Tripoli was taken,

and became the capital of a new dukedom,

which was conferred on Bertrand, son of

Raymond. The state thus formed was

subject, after the feudal manner, to the

Kingdom of Jerusalem; but its importance,

lying as it did midway between the principality of Antioch and the Holy Land, was

.such as to give to Tripoli a rank of almost

independent sovereignty.

At Antioch affairs had not gone prosperously. Boemund, as already narrated,

was made prisoner by the Turks. Tancred

thereupon assumed the government during

the minority of Boemund's son. While

acting thus as regent he continued his unending warfare with the Saracens and was