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1322 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

crown, with his head in it, seemed to be

pressed flat between a Turkish shield and a

Christian buckler. Beyond the Bosphorus

was the flaming Crescent. Over the Hungarian forest was seen the portentous shadow of

the coming Cross.

The Greek Emperor, with something of

the old-time craftiness of his race, perceived

that the Crusaders were really adventurers.

He knew that the Franks, and especially the

Normans, had just one class of friends-those who had nothing; and one class of enemies-those who had something. He understood that these greedy descendants of the Northmen would discover in the luxurious capital of the East every thing which was calculated

to excite their cupidity; and what robber in

the presence of spoil ever failed to find a

cause of quarrel?

The situation was in the highest degree

critical. The armies at the disposal of Alexius were made up of mercenaries. At all

times such forces are notoriously disloyal, or

rather the motive of loyalty is altogether

wanting in such a soldiery. To match the

hired barbarians of the Eastern Empire

against the mail clad warriors of Godfrey

and Raymond was like setting curs on mastiffs. So the Emperor fell back on craft and

subtlety.

Meanwhile the several crusading armies

took up their march for the East. For a

while affairs went well. By and by, however, Hugh of Vermandois, leader of the

French Knights, having set out with the

Pope's banner and blessing, was wrecked

on the coast of Epirus. In this catastrophe Alexius perceived his opportunity. He

ordered Count Hugh to be seized, brought

to Constantinople, and held as a hostage.

By this means he hoped to make King Philip

of France, a brother of the prisoner, dependent upon his pleasure respecting the

future conduct of the Crusade. Count

Hugh was also held as a pledge for the

future good conduct of the Franks while

traversing the territories of the Empire.

The chivalrous Godfrey was deeply in