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of Flanders, and Dietrich of Holland-all

threw off the Imperial sway and asserted their

independence. The occasion of this alarming outbreak was the persistent folly of

Henry in filling the offices of the Empire

with his personal friends and kinsmen, to

the exclusion of more able and meritorious

claimants. So great was the abuse complained of that by the year 1051 all the

states of Germany, with the single exception of Saxony, were governed by the personal friends and relatives of the Emperor.

But the stubborn monarch was not to be put

from his purpose by opposition. He plunged

into a four years' bloody war with the rebellious dukes. He called to his aid his

creature, Pope Leo IX., who excommunicated

the insurgents. He procured the assistance

of the English and Danish fleets in his conflict with Baldwin of Flanders, and sent a

powerful army against Godfrey of Lorraine.

But no decided successes were achieved by the

Imperial arms, and the insurrectionary states

could not be quieted.

During the progress of the war Duke

Bernhard of Saxony, who was not a favorite of the Emperor, held himself and his

countrymen in sort of unfriendly neutrality. With a view to counteract this

antagonism Henry III appointed one of

his friends, named Adelbert, as archbishop

of Bremen. At the same time he built for

himself the royal castle of Goslar, at the foot