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of Feudalism. Cathedrals and monasteries

took on the relation of sovereigns and vassals.

One city became the suzerain of another.

The king himself was only a feudal lord

of larger growth. Not only landed estates,

but rights, prerogatives, privileges-the surplice fees of the Church, the revenues derived from the baptismal rite, the privilege of fishing in a given river or of cutting

wood in a given forest-all were conceded

by the superior to the inferior after the

feudal manner. The system took complete possession of society, and constrained

every other institution to accept its form,

if not its spirit.

Looking more closely into the social condition of Feudal Europe, we find much of

interest and instruction. Modern times have

been and are still largely influenced by conditions which were native to the soil of

Feudalism. The family of today is essentially feudal in its character and sentiments,

and the nature of land ownership in most

of the states of the West is derived from the

same origin. From these considerations it

may be interesting to sketch in outline the

peculiar organization of the family, the

household, the estate of a feudal baron of

the Middle Ages.

He was himself a warrior. He was ignorant, brave, and gloriously brutal. He came

as the leader of a band out of the North. At

the time of his appearing the inhabitants of

the country were those half-Romanized Celts,

who in the cities and towns had wholly, and

in the country districts partly, substituted the

Latin language and institutions for the primitive usages of their fathers. These once war1 like peoples, long subject to the iron scepter

of Rome, had become tame and timid. They

were trodden under foot by the mighty warriors of the German woods. The work of

subjugation was quickly and easily accomplished. A powerful barbarism sat down with

crushing weight upon the abject Celtic peasantry of Western Europe.

The leader, of this conquering band was

now destined to become a feudal lord. He

settled in the country which he had conquered. He chose for himself an estate with

a limit proportionate to his power and ambition. The inhabitants of these lands,