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1183 THE AGE OF CHARLEMAGNE-SUCCESSORS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 1183

assumed. the duties of government, the

one in Aquitaine, the other in Bavaria.

Thus, within five years after the death of

Charlemagne, were made the beginnings

of the great three-fold division of Western

Europe into France, Germany, and Italy.

At the very commencement of his reign,

the weakness and subservience of Emperor

Louis were manifested. Two years after

his accession, Pope Stephen IV was invited to come into France and perform

the ceremony of consecration. The Roman

pontiffs had already on several occasions

performed like service for the Most Christian Kings of France. Charlemagne had

been crowned by Leo III, and his sons consecrated at Rome. The example, however,

which the great Carlovingian had set on

these occasions was replete with dignity

and kingly self-assertion. He had shown

due deference, but no abasement, in the

presence of the Holy Father. But not so

with the subservient and pious Louis. As

Stephen drew near to Rheims, the Emperor went forth to meet him, and prostrated himself at full length before him.

There he lay until the Pope stretched forth

his hand and lifted up the groveling ruler

from the dust. It was not long until the inherent weakness of the government gave occasion for

insurrection. The mountaineers of Vasconia

first rose in revolt. Meanwhile Bernard, who,

before the death of Charlemagne, had succeeded his father Pepin in the kingdom of