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their hands, let none take thought about giving unto them." Much of the Emperor's

thought seems to have been given to economic questions, and it is instructive to see

this great mind considering various projects

for putting a fixed price on provisions. He

was jealous of the justice of his administration and the reputation of his court.

The royal headquarters were not to be made

an asylum for criminals: "We do will and

decree that none of those who serve in our

palace shall take leave to receive therein

any man who seeketh refuge there and

cometh to hide there by reason of theft,

homicide, adultery, or any other crime.

That if any free man do break through our

interdicts, and hide such malefactor in our

palace, he shall be bound to carry him on

his shoulders to the public quarter, and be

there tied to the same stake as the malefactor."

It was in the latter rather than in the

earlier part of his reign that Charlemagne

became conspicuous as a legislator. Of

the sixty-five statutes attributed to him,

only thirteen are referable to that part

of his reign before his coronation at Rome.

The remaining fifty-two are all included

between the years 801 and 814. We are

thus afforded another example of a military leader who, having conquered a peace

with the sword, was anxious to preserve by law what had been so hardly


Any sketch of the life and times of Charlemagne would be incomplete if notice were

omitted therefrom of his attitude towards

learning. Instead of that jealousy which so

many of his predecessors and contemporaries

manifested towards scholars and philosophers-instead of that contempt which the small

rulers of the human race have ever shown

for the big brained, radical thinkers of the

passing age-the great Carlovingian took

special pains to seek the acquaintance and

cultivate the esteem of the learned. Upon

scholars and teachers he looked with the

greatest favor. He invited them to his court.

He made them his counselors. He sought

their advice in the gravest emergencies. He

bestowed favors upon them, and made no

concealment of his wish to be indebted to

them for a knowledge of letters and the


In the midst of such surroundings, he

found time and opportunity to lay in his own

rough and powerful intellect the foundations of exact knowledge. He obtained the

rudiments of science. He studied grammar,

rhetoric, logic, geometry, astronomy, and

even, to a certain extent, the recondite

problems of theology. He even, in some

measure, assumed the duty of teaching these

branches to his children and members of

his household, and it is amusing to find

in his correspondence many interesting references to such small questions of scholarship. Thus, in a letter to the learned Alcuin, being troubled, forsooth, because he could no

longer discover the planet Mars, he writes:

"What thinkest thou of this Mars, which,

last year, being concealed in the sign of

Cancer, was intercepted from the sight of

men by the light of the sun? Is it the regular

course of his revolution? Is it the influence

of the sun? Is it a miracle? Could he have

been two years about performing the course

of a single one?"

Nearly all of the distinguished men of the

eighth and ninth centuries were grouped

about the court of Charlemagne. These were

employed by the Emperor, either as his political advisers or as the instructors of his household. Some were sent to Pepin in Italy to

superintend that prince's education, and some

to Aquitaine to teach young Louis the rudiments of learning. Those who remained at Aix la Chapelle were organized into a body

known as the School of the Palace. Over

this Charlemagne presided in person. Here

questions of scholarship, theories of learning,

and speculations of metaphysics were discussed with all the vigorous zeal for which

the men and the times were noted. At the

head of this group of scholars and philosophers stood the two most distinguished literary

men of the age. These were Alcuin, the

principal director of the School of the Palace,

and Eginhard, who was distinguished as a

historian and biographer of his sovereign.

Among the other most eminent scholars may

be mentioned the bishops Angilbert, Leidrade,

Adalhard, Agobard, and Theodulph, who were

at the head of the Sees of St. Requier, Lyons,

and Orleans. Of all these, Alcuin stood highest in the confidence of the Emperor. To his

sovereign he was wont to say: "If your zeal

were imitated, perchance one might see arise