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brutally treated, was announced to appeal to

the king of the Franks as the defender of the

insulted Church. In a short time his Holiness

came in person to Paderborn, and poured out

his grievances in the ready ear of Charlemagne. Nor was it doubtful that the latter

would uphold the cause of the Pope with all

the resources at his command. Having tarried for a brief season in the Frankish dominions, Leo returned to Rome.

The first months of the year 800 were

spent by the king in the usual affairs of government; but in midsummer he announced to

the national assembly his purpose of making

another visit to Italy. The journey was undertaken in the autumn, and late in November the king arrived before the walls of

Rome. The Pope came forth and received

him with every mark of obsequious favor.

He was led into the city and given a reception on the steps of the basilica of Saint

Peter, from which place, followed by the

shouts of the multitude, he was taken into

the sanctuary of the apostle. Sometime was

spent in examining the charges made by and

against the Pope. Two monks, sent by the

patriarch of Jerusalem, brought to the great

Carlovingian the blessing of their master and

the keys of the Holy Sepulcher. Finally, on

Christmas day, when the king came into the

basilica to attend the celebration of mass,

even as he was bowing down to offer prayer,

Pope Leo placed upon his head the golden

crown of the Empire, while the people shouted,

"Long life and victory to Charles Augustus,

crowned by God, the great and pacific Emperor of the Romans!" Charles assumed to

be astonished at the crowning and the proclamation. He even declared that, had he

known of what was intended, he would not

have entered the church, even to attend the

Christmas festivities. But his faculties were

not sufficiently confused or his humility sufficiently shocked to prevent him from paying

adoration to the Pope, according to the old time method at the coronation of the