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following clauses: That Theodemir should not

be disturbed or injured in his principality;

that he should deliver seven of his cities to

the Arabs; that he should not assist the enemies of the Caliph; that he and each of his

nobles should pay an annual tribute into the

Moslem treasury.

Thus did the years 711-714 witness the

overthrow of the Gothic monarchy of Spain

and the substitution therefor of the institutions

of the Arabs. Musa, however, did not long

survive his triumph. The same ungenerous

treatment which he had visited on Taric was

now reserved for himself. He fell under the

suspicion of the court of Damascus and was

arrested by the messenger of the Caliph. His

two sons, Adallah and Abdalaziz, were left in

the governments of Africa and Spain. The

journey of the veteran Musa into Syria,

though he was virtually a prisoner was little

less than a triumphal procession. Before he

could reach Damascus the Caliph Waled died,

but his successor was equally unfriendly to

Musa. The old general was tried on a charge

of vanity and neglect of duty and was fined

two hundred thousand pieces of gold. He was

then whipped and obliged to stand in disgrace

before the palace, until, condemned to exile,

he was permitted to depart on a pilgrimage to

Mecca. The resolute spirit of the aged soldier

was broken, and he died on reaching the shrine

of the Prophet.

In a short time after the conquest Spain

became the most prosperous and civilized

country of the West. Manufactures and

commerce sprang up. Cordova became a

royal seat. The city contained six hundred

mosques, nine hundred baths, and two hundred thousand dwellings. Within the limits

of the kingdom were eighty cities of the first

class and three hundred of the second and

third, and the banks of the Guadalquivir

were adorned with twelve thousand hamlets

and villages.

Having thus securely established themselves in the Spanish peninsula, the Arabs

soon began to look for other fields of conquest

beyond the Pyrenees. They aspired to the

dominion of all Europe. Having conquered

the barbarian kingdoms north of the Alps,

they would carry the Crescent down the banks

of the Danube until the Greek Empire,

pressed on the east, and the west by the victorious evangelists of the Koran, should collapse, and the banners of Islam be set up

around the entire Mediterranean. Such was

the outline of a purpose which wanted but

little of fulfillment.

To the north of the Pyrenees lay the

kingdom of the Franks, fallen into decline

under the last of the Merovingians. The

condition of the country was such as to provoke an invasion by the men of the South.

Pepin the Elder, mayor of the palace, had

died, and after a brief contention among his

illegitimate children, his rights had descended

to Charles, who was destined soon to win

the sobriquet of the Hammer, Fortunate it

was for the destinies of Christian Europe

that the Rois Faineants had been dispossessed

of the throne of the Franks and the power

transmitted to one who was able to defend it

against aggression.

It has already been noted that in the first

years of their Spanish ascendancy the Arabians carried their arms to the north of the

Pyrenees and overran Septimania or Languedoc. By degrees the limits of their Frankish

territory were extended until the south of

France, from the mouth of the Garonne to

that of the Rhone, was included in the Moslem


This realm, however, was by no means as

broad as the ambition of Abdalrahman, the

Arab governor of Spain. To him it appeared that the time had now come to honor

the name of the prophet by adding Western

Europe to his heritage. He accordingly

determined to undertake a great expedition

against the Frankish kingdom. In the

year 721 he raised a formidable army and

set out on his march to the north. Having

crossed the Pyrenees he proceeded to the

Rhone and laid siege to the city of Aries.

The Christian army which came forth for

its defense was terribly defeated on the banks

of the river, and thousands of the slain and

drowned were carried by the swift Rhone to the sea. Meanwhile the valiant

Eudes, duke of Aquitaine, mustered an army

at the passage of the Garonne, where a

second great battle was fought with the same

result as the former. The Christians were

again defeated with the loss of many thousands.

The progress of the Mohammedans northward had now continued unchecked a distance

of more than a thousand miles from Gibraltar.