1152 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.
the Christians of Syria had delighted to deposit the bones and relics of the saints. At
first the polite Caliph offered to purchase the
church for forty thousand dinars of gold; but
this being refused by the owners, Waled took
forcible possession of the building and would
pay therefor not a farthing.
Meanwhile the foreign affairs of the Caliphate were left to generals and secretaries. Moslema, one of Waled's fourteen brothers, made
a successful campaign into Asia Minor, where
he besieged and captured the city of Tyana.
He afterwards carried his victorious arms into
Pontus, Armenia, and Galatia, in all of which
provinces he reared the Crescent and gathered
the spoils of war.
On the side of the East the dominions
of the empire were enlarged by Moslema's
son, Khatiba. Having been appointed to
the governorship of Khorassan, he carried
the Crescent across the Oxus into Turkestan,
where he met and defeated a great army of
Turks and Tartars. The city of Bokhara was
captured and the khan of Chariam driven
into Samarcand. The city was then besieged by the courageous Khatiba, and after
a long investment was obliged to surrender.
A mosque was at once erected, and the conqueror himself ascending the pulpit explained
the doctrines of Islam.
Still further to the east, another general,
named Mohammed Ibn Casern, led an army
of the faithful into India. The kingdom of
Sinde was successfully invaded. A great battle was fought; the Moslems were victorious,
and the head of the Indian monarch was sent
as a trophy to Damascus. The expedition
then continued to the east, until the victorious standard of the Prophet was erected on
the banks of the Ganges.
In the far west the emir Musa was still
busy with his army and fleet. In the year
704 a Mohammedan squadron committed
ravages in Sardinia and Sicily. On land
the emir carried his banner westward to
where the spurs of the Atlas descend into
the Atlantic. The countries of Fez, Duquella, Morocco, and Sus were added by
successive conquests. The resistless sway of
Islam was extended to where the setting sun
casts his last look at the headlands of Cape
As a governor Musa established order.
His administration was so wise and simple that the Berber tribes soon became the
most loyal of his subjects. The whole coast
of Northern Africa, with the exception
of Tingitania-the same being the northern
projection of land next the strait of Gibraltar-acknowledged his authority and followed his banners. It remained for him,
before beginning the conquest of Europe,
to subdue the Tingitanians by capturing
the two cities of Ceuta and Tangiers. These
fortresses were now held by the Gothic
Spaniards, whose kingdom on the opposite
side of the strait was thus defended from
Musa collected an army and advanced
against Ceuta, which was held by a strong
garrison, under command of Count Julian.
The Moslems laid siege to the fortress and
several unsuccessful assaults were made, in
which thousands of the assailants were slain.
It had already become evident that with the
imperfect besieging enginery of the Arabs,
they would be unable to take the citadel.
At this juncture, however, the Count
Julian committed treason. A correspondence was opened with Musa, and it was
agreed that Ceuta should be surrendered
to the Moslems. The treachery also embraced the delivery of the whole kingdom
of Andalusia, then ruled by the Gothic King
Roderic, to the followers of the Prophet!
It transpired that Count Julian had been
the victim of private wrongs at the hands
of his sovereign, and he now sought this
method of squaring the account. Great was
the surprise of the veteran Musa in having
thus opened to his imagination the easy
conquest of Spain.
Meanwhile the great soldier Taric Ibn Saad,
to whom had been assigned the capture of
Tangiers, had succeeded in his work. Those
of the garrison who belonged to the Berber
race were converted to Mohammedanism, and
the Christian inhabitants of the city were permitted to retire into Spain. Musa suspecting
the sincerity of Count Julian-for the latter
had represented that the people of Andalusia
were already ripe for a revolt to overthrow
the government of Roderic-now sent for
Taric, and ordered him to cross the strait in
company with Julian and ascertain the true
condition of affairs in Spain. By summoning
his friends, the Count seemed to verify the
representations which he had made to Musa.