Page 1049


warlike people, who sometimes made their

way to the very gates of Constantinople, have

already been recorded in the preceding volume. During the reign of Anastasius, the

Empire was obliged to purchase peace by the

payment of an enormous bribe. The Bulgarians retired only to return in the reign of

Justinian; but the veteran Belisarius drew his

sword against them, and they were quickly

driven to their own place. Bulgaria was

overrun by the Avars; but the conquest was

of short duration, and the people soon regained their independence. The greatest of

the Bulgarian khans was Kuvrat, who made

a league with the Emperor Heraclius, and received from him the title of patrician. After

his death the old Bulgarian dominion was

broken up, and his five sons became as many

conquerors in distant parts. The first subdued a district on the banks of the Don; the

second established himself in Pannonia; the

third, in Moldavia; the fourth, in Italy; and

the fifth, named Asparukh, crossed the Danube into Moesia Inferior. Here, in the year

680, between that river and the Balkans were

laid the foundations of the principality of

modern Bulgaria.

The fifth branch of the Scythic family in

Europe was the Hungarian. By this no reference is intended to the many other nations

that have contributed to people the Hungarian Empire, but to the Magyars or

Hungarians proper. Their first migration carried them into the region between

the Don and the Dniester. Afterwards they

crossed the Carpathian mountains, led by Almos, one of their seven chieftains. They were

at this time a band of seven tribes, united in

a compact which, under the sanctity of oaths,

gave a guaranty of justice and equality to all

members of the federation. Arpad, the son

and successor of Almos, overran all of Hungary and Transylvania, and early in the tenth