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982 UNIVERSAL HISTORYTHE ANCIENT WORLD.

most amiable was Valentinian. He fixed his

capital at Milan, at this time the most orthodox city in Italy. The young Caesar, however,

was an Arian in belief, having been so trained

by his mother Justina. This diversity in faith

brought on a conflict between him and Saint

Ambrose, who, in the endeavor to correct the

Emperor's views, went so far as to set at

nought his authority. In order to sustain himself in his attitude of defiance he produced a

series of alleged miracles which, appealing to

the superstition of Valentinian, kept him paralyzed. The pagans appealed to him to restore

to the forum the statue and altar of Victory;

but an army led by Valentinian came down

upon Italy, and he and his mother flying to

the East put themselves under the protection

of Theodosius. They were kindly received,

but on condition that their faith should be

conformed to the orthodox standard. Theodosius then espoused their cause. Advancing

against Maximus he defeated him at Siscia,

on the Save, and drove him into Aquileia,

where he was taken and put to death. The

victory left Theodosius master of the Roman

world; but instead of assuming the sole sovereignty of the Empire he restored Italy and

the West to Valentinian. Meanwhile Abrogastes, an officer in the army of the latter, had

broken with his master and declared himself

independent. When Valentinian, after the

departure of Theodosius, undertook to reduce

his refractory subject to obedience, he was

himself captured and executed. The rebellious chief, however, instead of seizing the

throne for himself, conferred it upon a certain

grammarian named EUGENIUS, recently secretary of the Imperial household.

With the last revolution came a fitful revival of ancient heathenism. Eugenius, as

well as Abrogastes, was a pagan, and he made

haste to revolutionize the existing order by

restoring the ancient temples and reinstituting

the temple of the .gods. Once more the Vestal

Virgins were seen ascending the hill of the

Capitol to perform the sacred rites according

to the usage of antiquity. So complete was

this temporary triumph of the pagan party

that the statue of Victory was replaced before

the Curia Julia and news was sent to Saint

Ambrose that the principal Christian church

in Rome was about to be converted into a

stable. Theodosius, hearing of these high handed proceedings, again marched to the

west, gained a passage through the Julian

Alps, and in A. D. 394 won a complete victory

over Eugenius. The latter was captured and

put to death. Abrogastes killed himself. The

images of the gods were knocked from their

pedestals. The Victory was again removed

from the Forum. The temples were shut up,

and sacrifices interdicted. Pagan worship was

prohibited throughout the Empire; nor is the

tradition wanting that the Senate declared

Christianity to be the religion of Rome.

In the year following these events Theodosius died. In the mean time the Goths, who

during the larger part of the century had

been beating against the borders of the Empire, had at last obtained a foothold south of

the Danube. It appears to have been the

policy of the Emperors from Diocletian to

Theodosius to encourage the establishment of