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NOW it was that the spectral shadows of the old

Republic, which, out of

deference to the past, had

still been allowed to haunt

the capitol, disappeared

forever. The names of

consul, tribune, Senate ceased to be heard in

the nomenclature of the administration. The

government became a monarchy without republican accessories. The offices were filled

henceforth by appointment. It was the purpose of Diocletian to reestablish in Rome a

central authority whose edicts should be again

felt not only in Italy, but throughout the

provinces of the Empire. Instead of being

merely a military commander, directing the

movements of the legions in some quarter of

the horizon, the Emperor was again to become

a civil ruler, whose Imperial edicts were to

command obedience in every part.

In the choice of a colleague Diocletian

named Maximianus, an Blyriari peasant by

birth, a soldier by profession. On him, in

286, was conferred the title of Augustus. The

two sovereigns also assumed the respective

names of Jovius and Herculius. Meanwhile

a certain Carausius had raised a revolt in

Britain, and was advancing his claims to the

throne. Against him Maximian directed the

army in Gaul, and the pretender was over thrown. About the same time the insurrectionary spirit manifested itself in the eastern

provinces of the Empire, and Diocletian undertook in person the pacification of the rebellious


But before setting out for the East the

Emperor inaugurated a new system of government, which consisted of a subdivision of

the administrative prerogatives among two Augusti and two Caesars, the latter being respectively subordinate to the former. Thus in A.

D. 292 Constantius Chlorils was appointed

Caesar under Maximian in the West, while

Galerius was put in like relation with Diocletian in the East. To give solidarity to

the system, the daughters of the Augusti were

married to the respective Caesars. The supreme sovereignty of the state was still nominally lodged in Diodetian, who established

his court in Nicomedia, and retained for his

personal government the provinces of Asia

Minor, Syria, and Egypt. The Caesar Galerius was stationed at Sirmium, and to him was

committed the duty of maintaining peace on

the Danubian frontier. The court of Maximian was fixed at Milan, and to his immediate

supervision were intrusted the home provinces

of Italy, the islands of the Mediterranean, and

Africa. The Caesar Constantius was established at Treves, and the defense of the Rhenish frontier and on Transalpine Gaul, Spain,

and Britain was committed to his valor.

For a season the system thus instituted

brought favorable results. The Egyptian rebellion was suppressed by Diocletian. Maximian reduced Mauritania to submission. Constantius overthrew the Alemanni, and then

defeated the pretenders, Carausius and Allectus, in Britain. Galerius routed the Persians

from the borders of Syria. After twenty years

of victorious warfare Diocletian returned to

the andent capital of the Empire, and there

celebrated a triumph in honor of liis own successes and those of his colleagues.

A novel episode occurred soon afterwards.

In A. D. 305 the Emperor, being then in his

sixtieth year, journeyed to Morgus, in Maesia,

and there on the first day of May, on the

spot where he had been proclaimed, resigned

the crown. On the same day Maximian acting either in emulation of his colleague or

by his directionalso resigned liis authority.

The Imperial power was thus left in the hand of the two Caesars, who now became Augusti

by succession. Such was the plan of Diodetian.

After his abdication the late Emperor retired to private life, and, tempting fate no

further, sought in the cultivation of his garden