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941

ROME-THE FIRST CAESARS.

encourage the cause of education. An extensive public library was

established in the new Forum, and provisions made for the maintenance of

salaried teachers, who presently constituted, as at Alexandria, a

profession of learned men. Scholars were in favor at the capital. Some of

them were raised to important offices in the state. The rhetorician

Quintilian was elected to the consulship. The natural opposition of

learned and moral men to the abusive vices of politics was encouraged by

the government, to the great improvement of the public service. The

patronage of the Emperor, however, was withheld from the more radical of

the Stoics and from the Cynics as a sect; and some old statutes of the

Republic were revived against those philosophers whose teachings were

regarded as tending to immorality and the corruption of the state.

The reign of Vespasianus may be most favorably compared with those of the

preceding Caesars. He was a man of honest purposes, personally virtuous

according to the definitions of the times, diligent in his application to

business, a keeper of his word with friend and foe. At the age of seventy,

after a successful and peaceful reign of ten years' duration, he died a

natural death. In his last illness the resolution of his character was

shown in his demand that his attendants should hold him in an upright

position. "For," said he, "an Imperator of Rome ought to die standing."

In the mean time Titus had been wisely associated with his father in the

government. He had already held the office of censor, and had greatly

alleviated the cares of the Emperor's declining years. Like his father,

Titus came to the government with the reputation of a great military

leader. His manners were, however, refined and scholarly. His sentiments

were more elevated and less severe than those of Vespasianus, and he

possessed, besides, many traits of popularity which were wanting in the

elder prince. The life of Titus was dashed with a romance dating from his

campaigns in the East. There he had become enamored of Berenice, a Jew,

sister of Agrippa, king of Chalcis. Her he wooed after the fashion of human

nature, and induced to go with him to Rome. It was his purpose to make her

his wife and queen; but the prejudices of his countrymen were so intense

against the marriage of their rulers with foreign princesses that Titus was

obliged to give over his honorable intentions, and Berenice returned to the

East.

The general policy of Vespasianus was carefully followed by Titus. The

latter, however, for good reason refused to associate with himself his

profligate brother Domitianus, preferring to bear the whole care of state

rather than commit the public interest to the unworthy. The new Caesar was

destined to a brief career. A constitution naturally delicate had already

been impaired by the hardships of the camp. His health failed, and after a

reign of but two years he passed away. In mildness of manners and

benevolence of