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wild beasts. Caprice became his master, and the destruction of life his

chief delight. He married his sister, and when she died he had divine

honors decreed to her by the Senate. As a divinity she received the name of

Panthea, and her statue was set up in the temple of Venus.

Tired at length of dissipation, Caligula turned to butchery. Tiberius had

killed through jealousy; the present Caesar, for the love of murder.

Senators, knights, generals, nobles, provincial magnates fell right and

left like oxen in the royal shambles. Confiscation followed in order to

keep bank-full the river of extravagant expenditure which flowed through


It had been the misfortune of Caligula's youth to pass a considerable time

under the tutelage of Herod Agrippa, the chief of Jewry: By him the mind of

the prince was abused with notions of Oriental despotism. He had been

taught to believe that monarchs were gods to be worshipped. The time bad

now come when that pernicious planting was to bear its fruit. Caligula

ordered a porch to be built across the Forum from his palace on the

Palatine to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whose equal and

representative he claimed to be. He pretended to hold free converse with

the immortals. He dressed himself by turns in the habits of Hercules,

Bacchus, and Apollo, and when he wearied of impersonating the male deities

he appeared in the costumes of Venus, Juno, and Diana! He ordered his

statue to be set up in the temples of the Milesian Apollo and of Jehovah at

Jerusalem. He had contrived an artificial thundering machine in order that

he might imitate the work of Jove. Finally, after an assumption of equality

with the divinities, he advanced his claim to be the chief god of earth and

heaven. And Rome, who had once given birth to such lion's whelps as

Regulus, Scipio, and Cato, bathed her hands in the spittle of the impious

profligate who daily defiled the basilica of the Palatine!

For four years this disgusting drama was enacted in the name of government.

The peculiarity of Caligula's delirium was that he required every thing to

be done in a magnificent, or rather grandiose, style. He married the woman

Caesonia on account of her size! He was jealous of the preceding reigns

because of their calamities. He gloated over the destruction of the army of

Varus, and sighed for a repetition of such a sensation as must have

followed that prodigious slaughter. In the time of Tiberius the theater at

Fidenae had fallen and crushed fifty thousand people. Caligula longed for

the occurrence of another such calamity. Finally he declared that he wished

the Roman people had but a single neck that he might sever it with an ax!

By degrees his insolence rose to such a pitch that human nature could no

more endure his conduct. At length he publicly insulted a tribune of the

praetorians, who, with a few others, resolved on a summary revenge. They

watched their opportunity, fell upon Caligula as he was going from the

amphitheater, and left him dead in the passage with thirty stabs of their

daggers in his body. The assassins escaped and the corpse of the Caesar was

taken away by some of his friends and buried in the Lamian gardens.

When the sudden exit of Caligula was known the spasmodic cry of the old

Republic was heard in the Senate House. For the