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were her political troubles increased on account of her republican form.

The wills of the many were at cross purposes in the Senate and the Forum.

Faction paralyzed the arm of the Republic and it became more and more

apparent that the distracted counsels of aristocratic Rome must yield to

the Imperial will of one, in order that the great state created by the

valor of Roman arms and maintained by the vigor of Roman law might be saved

from universal insurrection and imminent dismemberment. Caesar answered to

the great emergency.

2. In the second place the Empire rose over the Republic because of the

decay of those peculiar virtues by which only a popular form of government

can be upheld. Old Rome was pervaded with patriotism. The contention of

faction was counterbalanced by the love of country. The Roman character

was, at the first, one of great simplicity. The man of Rome was frugal,

brave, temperate, virtuous- according to the standard of his age. His

neighbor was like himself. The people of the city cooperated in the work of

government. The senators were content to be equals. The gross vices of

ambition and the grosser lusts of power had not yet germinated in the Early

Republic. It remained for war and conquest, the inflamed passions of

haughty consuls, the envy and distraction and burning jealousies of the day

of triumph to kindle in the Roman breast those fierce and relentless

enmities in the flame of which patriotism is consumed and virtue melts like


3. The Roman Republic gave place to the Imperial rule because of essential

vices in the old constitution. The Republic so called, was not a republic

in fact. It was an aristocracy: at first, an aristocracy of intellect and

birth; but afterward, an aristocracy of wealth and luxury and pride. The

theory that government of right proceeds from the people-that it is of the

people and for them-never prevailed in the Imperial City. The Roman

Republic, great and glorious as it was, was a mockery. The state existed

for itself, and not for its subjects. In such a condition one of two things

must ultimately ensue: anarchy or Imperialism. In the case of Rome the

Caesarian system answered to the call of this necessity.

4. In the fourth place, the peculiar character of the personal agencies

which controlled the closing decades of the Old Era contributed not a

little to replace the Republic with the Empire. The affairs of the world

are in part-albeit not largely-controlled by men. Such leaders as they who

composed the two Triumvirates have sufficient influence in their own age to

shape somewhat the general destinies of mankind. Such leaders were the

Catos, the Scipios, Crassus, Lepidus, Pompeius, Antonius, and especially

Julius Caesar. The strife of Pompey the Great and his greater rival-the one

the representative of the tottering Past and the other of the titanic

Future- was precisely the kind of a strife required for the furnace heat of

a great revolution. The existence of such a man as Julius-so daring, so

creative, so great-was of itself a strong suggestion of the substitution of

the progressive and audacious One for the paralyzed and retrogressive Many.

The Man came to the aid of Destiny.