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commander! "I discharge you." said he. "You have had enough of fatigue and

wounds. I release you from your oaths. As to your presents, you shall be

paid to the last sesterce." The old veterans could stand no more. They

burst into tears, and began to beg for forgiveness. With a certain prudent

hesitation, Caesar received them back to favor; but he took care that the

leaders who had fomented the mutiny should be executed. It was the work of

a master.

During the former stay of Caesar at Romeafter, the escape of Pompeius from

Brundusium, he had reorganized the government as nearly on the former basis

as was practicable under the circumstances. The Senate, the assembly, the

tribunate, and all the political forms to which the Romans were accustomed

were preserved without alteration. As to the Senate, however, the

complexion of that body was greatly changed. The old aristocratic element

was nearly extinct. After the battle of Pharsalia a certain number of those

who had been Optimates made their peace with the victor, and returned to

their former place in the government. Cicero was reconciled-a thing not

difficult with so pliant a character-and hastened back to his old haunts at

the capital.

It thus happened that on the return of Caesar from Asia Minor he found a

government thoroughly favorable to himself, but not very competent for the

great work of political transformation. The spirit of the government,

moreover, as well as the spirit of the people, was in many respects

antagonistic to the purposes of Caesar. There was an expectancy-even a

demand-that the work of proscription and confiscation should begin. Against

all this Caesar stood like a pillar of stone. He would permit no work of

spite and revenge-no spoliation of the state in the interest of his

friends. Antonius, who bid in the estate of Pompeius, was obliged to pay

for it just as though he had bought the villa of a friend. He who had

formerly, at the peril of his life, restored the statue of Marius now

restored those of Sulla and Pompeius, which had been thrown down by the

populace after the battle of Pharsalia. In every department and every work

of his administration-for he had now been named dictator, with full powers

both in peace and war-he showed the same spirit and purpose. His genius

rose above the narrow and revengeful spirit of his times, and soared into a

new atmosphere, too fine and deep for the gaze of his countrymen.

The Pompeians still held Africa. With them was leagued JUBA, king of

Numidia. Scipio, the father-in-law of Pompeius, refusing to recognize the

logic of events, and still believing in the Rome that was, held command of

the African province, and refused to be reconciled. In the beginning of

B.C. 46 Caesar found it necessary to go in person to Africa to reduce the

country to submission. He crossed the Mediterranean, and in April

encountered the forces of Scipio at Thapsus. The latter was completely

overthrown. Not a vestige was left of his army. His losses were reported at

fifty thousand, while those of Caesar were less than a hundred men! A few

of Scipio's officers, such as Labienus and the two sons of Pompeius,

escaped and took refuge in Spain.