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all Italy, and they would be consumed. So they returned an answer that he

should instantly retire from Ariminum and disband his army. Thereupon the

proconsul immediately set out for Rome.

The Pompeians now had to face the issue which themselves had made. As

Caesar came on by rapid stages they fled from the city and took refuge in

Brundusium. Here were gathered the remnants of the nobility, and all the

prominent adherents of that cause which now depended for its success upon

the generalship of Pompeius. Having passed by the capital, Caesar followed

his antagonist, and began a siege of Brundusium; but Pompeius, having

control of the navy, put his followers and soldiers on board, and departed

for Greece. Caesar now turned about and made his way to Rome. Here he

arranged for the government of Italy, and then set out for Spain; for he

had no fleet with which to pursue Pompeius, and the lieutenants of that

distinguished personage were having every thing as they would in the

Spanish peninsula. In a battle fought with them at Ilerda, Caesar met with

a serious check, but soon recovered himself and reduced the Pompeians to

submission. The expedition of Curio into Africa, where that general was

slain in the battle of Bragadas was less fortunate in its results. But the

disasters of this expedition were more than counterbalanced by the conquest

of Sicily. The granaries of the island were thus wrested from the

Pompeians, and made to supply the armies of Caesar.

The plans of Pompeius were greatly disconcerted by the overthrow of his

forces in Spain. It had been his purpose for that division of his army to

pass by way of the Pyrenees into Cisalpine Gaul, and there form a junction

with the other division commanded by himself to be brought over from

Macedonia, which country he had designated as the rendezvous for all the

drifting fragments of the aristocracy. The union of his forces having been

once effected in the valley of the Po, he purposed to invade Italy from the

north, defeat Caesar wherever he could find him, and restore the ancient

regime in Italy. Now, however, by the defeat of Afranius and Petreius in

Spain one of his arms was broken, and with the other he must fight the

battle with his antagonist in a foreign land.

Nevertheless, in the crisis which was now at hand, the advantages were on

the side of Pompeius. At his camp in Macedonia he had nine legions of

infantry and seven thousand horse. His supplies were abundant,

inexhaustible; for behind him was the great storehouse of the East. To his

assistance came Cato with the residue of his forces from Sicily, and

Domitius from Massilia. Around him flocked the aristocrats and officers of

the government. The Republic was now peripatetic, and had moved over into

Macedonia. Caesar held Italy, but Rome-Old Rome-the Rome of Africanus and

Sulla, was with Pompeius.

In the mean time Caesar, busy at the capital, had cleared away the debris,

and in the dictatorship of eleven days had laid anew the foundations of the

state. New Rome-the Rome that was to be-budded from the ground. A few

wholesome laws-calling back exiles, calming the populace, and restoring

public credit-were enacted; and then, on the 4th of January, B. C. 48,

Caesar, having assembled his war worn veterans-the survivors of six

legions-at Brundusium, made ready to embark for Epirus. With the first

division of the army he crossed the Adriatic in person; but while his fleet

was returning for the rest, it was attacked by Bibulus, who commanded the

squadron of Pompeius, and thirty vessels were captured. The rest of the

armament was driven into the harbor of Brundusium, from which perilous

position, however, it was soon relieved by the energy of Marcus Antonius.

The position of Caesar was now critical in the extreme; but he succeeded in

bringing over the remainder of his forces, and secured a favorable camp

near Dyrrhachium. His supplies, however, ran short, and nothing but the

invincible spirit of his veterans prevented either famine or mutiny. From

the first Caesar assumed the offensive. He threw up works sixteen miles in

length around the position of Pompeius. The latter, however, succeeded in

breaking through the lines, and Caesar fell back into Thessaly. This

movement was really indecisive, but the followers of Pompeius foolishly

regarded it as the end of the war. The