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the Menapii were also subdued, and the conquest of all Gaul completed

within the year.

In B. C. 55 Caesar devoted himself to the German war. It was his purpose to

beat back all the Teutonic tribes across the Rhine, and to establish that

river as the western boundary of the Germanic race. Another great battle

was fought with the Teutonic peoples west of the Rhine, and then Caesar

built a bridge over the river-one of the famous exploits of his career-and

crossed into Germany. The movement was made as much to terrify as to

conquer the Germanic tribes. After a successful summer campaign he made his

way to the coast and crossed over into Britain. He then withdrew into his

winter-quarters in Gaul, but in the following year returned into the

island, defeated the British Celts under their king Cassivellaunus, and

reduced the country to a dependency, compelling the Britons to pay tribute

and give hostages.

No such startling campaigns as these had been heard of since the days of

Alexander. The half-paralyzed body of Rome felt the thrill of a new life.

The city rang with acclamations. Cicero, who after a year's exile had been

permitted, in B. C. 57, to return to the capital, and was again in the

blaze of the Forum, declared that the gods of old time had set the Alps as

a barrier against barbarism, but had now raised up a greater bulwark than

the Alps-Caesar. And the strange part of the fulsome praise was that it was

true! For the mountains had their passes and gateways, but the vigilance of

the great proconsul none.

During the winter of B. C. 54-53, while the Roman army was dispersed to

several quarters on account of the scarcity of supplies, the Gallic tribes

rose in a general revolt. One division of Caesar's forces was attacked and

utterly routed by the Aduatici, and the camp of Quintus Cicero, in the

country of the Nervii, was surrounded by sixty thousand barbarians. The

whole situation was one of extreme peril, but the courage of Caesar rose

with the occasion. He sped to the relief of Cicero, and before the Celts

were aware of his presence they felt the blow. They paid for their temerity

at a terrible expense of blood and treasure. Many of the Germans were again

engaged in a common cause with the Gallic tribes, and the proconsul found

it necessary to make a second .campaign into Germany. This movement

occupied the latter part of B. C. 54, and was followed up in the beginning

of the next year by the punishment of the Eburones, who had instigated the

recent revolt. After this Caesar returned into Cisalpine Gaul; for the news

from Rome was of such a character as to indicate that his presence might at

any time be demanded as a participant in the civil war which seemed


The Transalpine tribes had not yet learned wisdom by experience. In B. C.

52, as soon