UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.
arrived, Cinna had himself and Marius proclaimed consuls without the
formality of a ballot. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of the African
soothsayer, who had predicted that Marius should be seven times consul of
Rome. The end, however, was at hand. He whom the sword of the Cimbric slave
had spared now perished on the sword of his own passion. Tormented with
constant apprehension of his enemies, haunted by superstition, and finding
no further vent for his ferocity, he sought oblivion in drink. On the
thirteenth day of his consulship he died, in the seventy-first year of his
age. Cinna, however, continued to rule for two years longer. Without regard
to the forms of law, he appointed Lucius Valerius Flaccus to the
consulship, and at the end of the term brought it about that himself and
Cneius Papirius Carbo should be declared consuls for two years longer.
Let us now trace the career of Sulla. Early in B. C. 87 he landed with five
legions in Epirus. On his way across the Hellenic peninsula he paused to
capture Athens, which was sacked by his soldiers. Archelaus, who had
defended the city, made his escape and joined a second army sent by
Mithridates into Greece, and now in Boeotia. Sulla met his enemies on the
field of Chaeronea, and inflicted on them a severe defeat. In the following
year, B. C. 85, another battle was fought at Orchomentus, in which the
Romans were again victorious. In the mean time Lucius Valerius Flaccus, who
had been sent to the East to supersede Sulla in the command, landed in
Greece with two legions, and used all his arts to induce a defection in the
Roman army. But Sulla's soldiers adhered steadily to his cause, and Flaccus
soon afterward lost his life in a mutiny of his own troops.
By this time the people of the provincial states of the East had had enough
of Mithridates. They had found that Rome was the gentler master of the two.
The Greeks openly expressed their preference for a restoration of Roman
authority. The victories of Sulla conduced to the same result. The younger
Mithridates was defeated near Pergamus by the Roman general Fimbria, who
succeeded in capturing the city. The king became anxious to save the wreck
of his dominion by securing the best terms possible from his vanquisher.
Sulla met Mithridates in B.C. 84, at the town of Dardanus, and there the
terms of a settlement were dictated and accepted. The Pontic king was
compelled to surrender all his conquests, to confine his claims to Pontus
proper, to surrender his eighty ships of war, and to pay an indemnity of
three thousand talents. Sulla then proceeded against Fimbria, who, being
abandoned by his soldiers, fled to Pergamus and committed suicide. The
conqueror then imposed a contribution of twenty talents upon the province
of Asia, and the inhabitants of the country, in order to meet the
requisition, were obliged to borrow the money from the Roman usurers at a
ruinous rate of interest.
In B.C. 84 Sulla found himself in a situation to write a letter to the
Senate, announcing the overthrow of Mithridates and the pacification of the
East. The Marian party now held complete possession of Rome, and the news
of Sulla's victory sounded a death knell in their ears. The Senate sent
ambassadors to Sulla, expressing their desire for peace; but the two
consuls. Cinna and Carbo, knowing that a reconciliation was impossible,
prepared for the worst. Cinna, at the head of a large force, set out for
Greece, but on reaching Ancona a mutiny broke out among his soldiers, and
he was killed. Nevertheless preparations continued, and before Sulla could
reach Italy an army of two hundred thousand had been raised to resist him.
His own forces numbered but forty thousand, but these were veterans who
were devotedly attached to their leader. In the spring of B. C. 83 Sulla
landed at Brundusium, and began his march on Rome. The consuls were armed
with dictatorial powers, but nothing availed to stay his progress. Several
of the leaders of the consular armies went over to his standard. He
defeated the consul Norbanus at Mount Tifata, won over the troops of
Scipio, blockaded Capua, and wintered in Campania.
Meanwhile Norbanus and the younger Caous Marius-though the latter was not
of legal age-were chosen consuls, and Sulla and his adherents were declared
enemies of the