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In the following year (B. C.11O) the war was continued by the consul

Albinus; but his campaign-whether serious or feigned-had no success. Nor

did the consul Aulus, who succeeded him, attain any better results. Rather

worse; for he and his army were ensnared by Jugurtha and miserably

subjugated. The Roman people, unused for a long time to being baffled, much

less defeated, were now thoroughly aroused. Quintus Caecilius Metellus was

sent to Africa in B. C. 109, taking with him as legati Caius Marius and

Publius Rectilius Rufus. A new order of things was now introduced. The army

was at once brought to discipline, and Jugurtha found that a different

style of procedure would have to be adopted. The Roman army advanced from

town to town, and the Numidians were everywhere defeated. Jugurtha was

obliged to fly for his life and seek protection with Bocchus, king of

Mauritania. Metellus, however, was superseded and returned to Rome, and the

completion of the war was entrusted to his lieutenant, Caius Marius, who

was destined henceforth to bear so conspicuous a part in the history of his


Marius was born in B. C. 157, at the Latin town of Arpinum. The district of

country was rude and the people uncultured. Marius himself was illiterate

and of savage manners. His tastes from boyhood led him to the bivouac and

battle-field. His first public office was the tribunate, conferred in B. C.

119, though previous to that time he had distinguished himself as a

soldier. His next distinction was his election to the praetorship, which

occurred in B. C. 115. Soon afterwards he went with Metellus to Africa.

Here his unconquerable will and dauntless courage found opportunity to

display themselves in full force. His constitution was of so rugged a mold

as to enable him to endure all manner of hardships. He was a commoner even

in the camp. He shared the lot of the common soldiers, and sought no

distinction except what arose from endurance and contempt of danger.

From an early age Marius aspired to the consulship. He even while serving

as a subordinate made application to Metellus for the privilege of

returning to Rome and offering himself for the highest office in the gift

of the Roman people. Metellus is said to have replied contemptuously: "You

need not be in such a hurry; it will be time enough for you to apply for

the consulship with my son"-the latter being a youth who still lacked

twenty years of eligibility. But Marius was not to be put off with an

insulting answer. He more assiduously than ever cultivated the goodwill of

the soldiers and bided the time that should bring him to the goal. A few

days before the next election he obtained a reluctant leave of absence and

sailed for Rome. On arriving there he was elected consul, and as such was

entrusted with the conduct of the war in Africa. It was thus that a novus

homo was assigned to the unfinished task of Metellus.

Marius at once renewed the war with Jugurtha. The cause of the latter had

meanwhile been espoused by Bocchus, king of Mauritania. Their combined

armies were defeated in two decisive engagements. In B. C. 106 Bocchus was

detached from the alliance, and made his peace with the Romans. Jugurtha

also surrendered, and the war was at an end. The captive king was taken to

Rome to grace the triumph of the consul, and was then thrown into prison,

where he died in a few days. (1) The western part of his dominions was

detached and given to Bocchus, and the remainder was assigned to Gauda, a

descendant of Masinissa.

Thus far in her history Rome had had few relations with the countries of

the North. She had taken the precaution to establish Eporedia and Aquileia

as outposts in Cisalpine Gaul, to keep the passage of the Alps. Meanwhile a

great thoroughfare, called the Domitian Way, had been built from the Rhone

to the Pyrenees, thus connecting the home government with the Spanish

provinces. As for the rest of the peoples beyond the Alps, they were left


It remained for the Cimbri, a Teutonic tribe, to force upon the attention

of the Roman _________________________________ 1 It is related that when

Jugurtha was turned aside from the procession and led into the dungeon of

the Mamertinehe touched the cold damp walls, and exclaimed: "By Hercules,

they have cold stoves in Rome!"