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UNIVERSAL HISTORY-TBE ANCIENT WORLD.

not, or turned away in despair of bringing relief. Others of the Roman

party in Greece rejoiced at the forced emigration of their rivals in

politics. Such was Callicrates, an adherent of Rome, who after the

banishment of the Achaean leaders obtained the mastery of the League. Among

the exiles in Italy was the historian Polybius, to whom the world is so

much indebted for one of the truest accounts which have been preserved of

the best period of Roman greatness. Not until B. C. 151 were these

unfortunate victims of the heartless policy of Rome liberated and permitted

to return to Greece. Their numbers were reduced to three hundred, and these

were in rags and prematurely gray from the hardships of their long

confinement. Their arrival at home produced a profound indignation and

desire for vengeance.

Meanwhile other powers in the East were in like manner humbled and

degraded. The Republic of Rhodes was robbed of its dependencies. Eumenes,

king of Pergamus, another friend of the Roman people, was brought into

subjection; and the king of Syria-for better reasons-was driven out of

Egypt, and compelled to keep the peace under the dictation of the Senate.

The year B. C. 146 was marked by the last act in the drama of Grecian

civilization. The temper of the people of Central and Southern Greece was

greatly aroused by the return of their countrymen from Italy. The poor

wretches who came tottering into the streets of the cities were fine

examples of what the freedom of Hellas under the protection of Rome was

able to accomplish. A trivial contingency fired the train of rebellion. A

certain Andriscus, claiming to be a son of Perseus, advanced his claim to

the kingdom of Macedonia and called to his aid the Greeks. The members of

the League were in the humor to go to war with any power for any

provocation. They accordingly took up arms only to lay them down again.

They were defeated in two battles by the consul Metellus, whose term of

office, however, expired before the Achaeans yielded. He was succeeded in

the consulship by Mummius, who drove the insurgents into Corinth, and

having taken the city by storm, burned it to the ground. The devastation

was completed by selling the inhabitants into slavery, and transporting the

vast art treasures there accumulated to adorn the public buildings and

private villas of Rome.

In the same year that witnessed the destruction of Corinth, the coup de

grace was given to Macedonia. The four provinces which had, since the

capture of Perseus, been allowed to retain a shadow of independence, were

now consolidated, and together with Dyrrhacium and Apollonia constituted

the province of Macedonia, over which a proconsul was appointed, as in the

case of Sicily and Spain. To this officer was entrusted also the management

of the fragmentary principalities which were once glorified under the name

of Greece. It was a century and a quarter before these fragments were

gathered together and honored as a distinct provincial government under the

name of Achaia.

The policy pursued by Rome in thus widening her borders is worthy of

special note. The system was as methodical as it was merciless. The cold-

blooded purpose to build upon the ruins of others was never better

illustrated. The aggrandizement of the Republic at whatever cost of

principle, was the sole criterion of conduct in this aggression upon the

liberties of the nations. The particular method employed by the Senate was

to send envoys- spies-into foreign states to learn the political condition

and the internal broils with which the neighbors of Rome might chance to be

afflicted. Acting upon the basis of this information, the envoys were

instructed to foment existing difficulties and engender new ones to the end

that one or the other of the parties might appeal to the Romans, either to

interfere directly, or to act as arbiters in the various controversies.

It thus happened that real or factitious issues in surrounding countries

were more and more referred to Rome for decision-a circumstance which she

never failed to turn to her own account. This policy was often carried out

with a cynical diabolism which would have done credit to the Italian

diplomacy of the Middle Ages. It had the merit of being easier and less