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abettor in the recent scenes of violence and outrage, were arrested and thrown

into prison, whence they. were glad to escape by suicide. The other eight

decemvirs fled into exile. Three new statutes, known as the Valerio-Horatian

Laws-from the name of their authors who were now elected to the consulship-were

enacted, in which the consular authority was still further limited. The first law

was a renewal of the guaranty by which the tribunes of the people were made

inviolable in their persons, and also a restoration of the old Icilian Law. The

second statute revived the right of appeal against the sentence of any

magistrate; and the third and most important was that the plebiscita, or

resolutions adopted in the assembly of the plebeian tribes, should have the force

of law upon the whole people. Thus, at last, was the legislative power of the

Roman commons directly recognized and accepted.

The plebeians were quick to avail themselves of their new prerogatives. They now

claimed coordinate jurisdiction with the Senate in the matter of making laws; and

though the latter body naturally resented this division of a power which had been

exclusively its own, yet the assertion of plebeian rights could not be longer

prevented. It came to pass in practice that the tribunes carried the laws which

they desired to have adopted to the Senate to receive the sanction of that august

assembly; and for a while the popular officers would remain outside the Senate

House while the proposed measures were discussed by the patres et conscripti. By

and by, however, the tribunes, emboldened by familiarity, entered the Senate

freely, listened to the debates, and, in case of an obnoxious measure, arose and

pronounced their veto. It thus happened that when the senators were tempted to

enact unpopular laws, they were confronted in advance with the menace of the

tribunes, whom they could not successfully resist; and thus it came to pass that

the tribunal office grew from a mere