ROME-LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS.
in number, and after a brief period of dispute, he was elected to the kingdom.
The reign of Servius is celebrated as mild and peaceful. His only important war
was with the Etruscans, whom he compelled to be subject to the Romans. With the
Latins he made a treaty of perpetual amity; and in order to bind the union, the
two peoples built a temple to Diana on the Aventine, wherein they might
henceforth celebrate a common festival. Every year thereafter sacrifices were
offered at the altars of Diana for Rome and all Latium.
The next work of the king was the building of a great wall from the Quirinal to
the Esquiline Hill, by means of which the latter was included as the seventh hill
of the city. Rome was then divided into four parts or quarters, which, after the
prevailing fashion, were called tribes. The surrounding country was organized
into twenty-six districts. Common sanctuaries were built for the people;
governors were appointed, and holidays established to the end that the
inhabitants might associate in public, and become imbued with a Roman spirit. The
king in these beneficent measures did not forget that he was himself of lowly
origin. The commons were made to feel that the ruler of the city was their
friend. The laws were so framed as to favor the poor and protect the weak.
Popular gratitude sought expression by naming him the Good King Servius.
The city was now greatly augmented in population and resources. In order to
secure a better organization, it appeared desirable to arrange the different
classes of society on a new basis. This was undertaken with special reference to
the military management of the state. A division was made by Tullius of the
fighting men of Rome according to the principle of property qualification. The
people were divided into five classes, without regard to blood or descent; and
the voting in the assembly of the citizens was henceforth conducted on this
basis. The old division made by Romulus into Ramnes, Titienses, and Luceres was
not henceforth much regarded in the conduct of public affairs. These ancient
distinctions continued, but were rather nominal than real.
Under the new classification the first division of the people was made to consist
of forty centuries of younger men under forty-six years old, and forty centuries
of the elders who had passed that age. The latter were assigned to such duties as
the defense of the city, and the former to the active service of the field. The
second, third, and fourth classes were each likewise subdivided according to age
into twenty centuries of younger and twenty of older men; but in the fifth class
the two sections were made to consist of fifteen centuries each. The men of the
first class wore a complete suit of armor, consisting of a breast-plate, helmet,
shield, and greaves. The weapons carried by them were a lance, a javelin, and a
sword. The second class were similarly armed, but carried a lighter shield, and
wore no breast-plate. The third class omitted the greaves; the fourth, the
helmet. The fifth class had only the lightest suit of armor. The statute required
each citizen to furnish his own armor, and as that worn by men of the first class
was very costly, those who composed that class were selected exclusively from the
wealthiest ranks of the people. It was estimated that a citizen, in order to
belong to the first class, must be worth at least a hundred thousand asses. The
assessment for each succeeding