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ROME-LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS.

in number, and after a brief period of dispute, he was elected to the kingdom.

The reign of Servius is celebrated as mild and peaceful. His only important war

was with the Etruscans, whom he compelled to be subject to the Romans. With the

Latins he made a treaty of perpetual amity; and in order to bind the union, the

two peoples built a temple to Diana on the Aventine, wherein they might

henceforth celebrate a common festival. Every year thereafter sacrifices were

offered at the altars of Diana for Rome and all Latium.

The next work of the king was the building of a great wall from the Quirinal to

the Esquiline Hill, by means of which the latter was included as the seventh hill

of the city. Rome was then divided into four parts or quarters, which, after the

prevailing fashion, were called tribes. The surrounding country was organized

into twenty-six districts. Common sanctuaries were built for the people;

governors were appointed, and holidays established to the end that the

inhabitants might associate in public, and become imbued with a Roman spirit. The

king in these beneficent measures did not forget that he was himself of lowly

origin. The commons were made to feel that the ruler of the city was their

friend. The laws were so framed as to favor the poor and protect the weak.

Popular gratitude sought expression by naming him the Good King Servius.

The city was now greatly augmented in population and resources. In order to

secure a better organization, it appeared desirable to arrange the different

classes of society on a new basis. This was undertaken with special reference to

the military management of the state. A division was made by Tullius of the

fighting men of Rome according to the principle of property qualification. The

people were divided into five classes, without regard to blood or descent; and

the voting in the assembly of the citizens was henceforth conducted on this

basis. The old division made by Romulus into Ramnes, Titienses, and Luceres was

not henceforth much regarded in the conduct of public affairs. These ancient

distinctions continued, but were rather nominal than real.

Under the new classification the first division of the people was made to consist

of forty centuries of younger men under forty-six years old, and forty centuries

of the elders who had passed that age. The latter were assigned to such duties as

the defense of the city, and the former to the active service of the field. The

second, third, and fourth classes were each likewise subdivided according to age

into twenty centuries of younger and twenty of older men; but in the fifth class

the two sections were made to consist of fifteen centuries each. The men of the

first class wore a complete suit of armor, consisting of a breast-plate, helmet,

shield, and greaves. The weapons carried by them were a lance, a javelin, and a

sword. The second class were similarly armed, but carried a lighter shield, and

wore no breast-plate. The third class omitted the greaves; the fourth, the

helmet. The fifth class had only the lightest suit of armor. The statute required

each citizen to furnish his own armor, and as that worn by men of the first class

was very costly, those who composed that class were selected exclusively from the

wealthiest ranks of the people. It was estimated that a citizen, in order to

belong to the first class, must be worth at least a hundred thousand asses. The

assessment for each succeeding