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UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

inability or inaptitude of the Roman mind to hold many attributes together in one

personality. The multiplicity of nature seemed to require that the abstraction

should be broken up into its constituent elements. Each element became a power,

making many of one. Of the thirty original gods of Latium there were made such

division and increase as to fill earth, air, and sea with a multitude. When all

the attributes of what had been an abstract concept had been impersonated then

the process continued with the deification of man. In this there appeared to the

Roman nothing monstrous or absurd. Altars and temples were in many instances

erected to the honor of some emperor still alive; and the title of Augustus,

(divine) taken by all the Caesars after Octavianus, shows that the whole group

were contemplated as in a process of apotheosis. In this analytical system of

theogony every Roman organization from the state to the debating club had its own

deities in whom it delighted. Each family, each individual, selected what to him

or it appeared to be a presiding genius to whom prayer was addressed and

adoration offered. Thus came Italy to have two populations; the one mortal, the

other immortal-and the latter rivaled the former in number.

The Roman home had its household gods, called the Penates. They were the guardian

deities of the sacred precincts. After these the dearest gods were the Lares or

Lords. These were the souls of departed ancestors who were still present in the

abodes of mortality. They were the spirits of the good fathers. To carry out the

antithesis the souls of the bad, the Lemures and Larvae, were likewise supposed

to revisit the scenes of their former activity, prowling like wicked ghosts about

the dens of evil and despair. So all Italy was peopled with gods. Town and

country were filled with shrines and temples, where the gods peculiar to each

locality received the adoration of the devout. Holy buildings, however, belonged

rather to that period of Roman history when Greek culture had fired the popular

imagination with what it had been originally unable to create. In the epoch of

the later Republic and the early Empire magnificent temples in the best style of

Greek architecture rose on every side. In the public squares of Rome shrines and

monuments, niches and altars, were seen wherever a place might be found to

contain them; and even the gardens and groves were penetrated with the emblems of

that religious fervor