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places by daybreak. Among the earliest abroad in the streets were the clients,

who hurried back and forth in the hope of promoting their interests by early

visits. The street dealers and auctioneers were astir as soon as it was light.

The taverns and wine-shops were thrown open, and the goods in the shops exposed

for customers. The markets were crowded with noisy people, eager to buy and be

gone. So great a confusion presently prevailed as to make further repose

impossible, and the Quirites in full toga began to show themselves abroad,

proceeding with dignity to the Forum or the halls of justice to hear causes.

As the Republic of Rome assumed imperial proportions, there were estimated to be

within the city half a million of idlers. These represented all classes of

society-from the Patrician fop to the ragged loafer, from the granddaughter and

nieces of the Emperor to the courtesans of poverty. This vast throng hurried from

end to end of the city, seeking for something that should amuse or, perhaps,

satisfy the unappeasable hunger of the idle. Perhaps no other city of the world

has ever presented so vast a throng of profitless humanity-such a sea with its

tides and storms.

This great mass of human beings was truly cosmopolitan. Here were met the gray

bearded philosopher of Greece; the florid Teuton with his yellow hair; the

African, black as night; the tattooed Celt of Britain; the Gaul from beyond the

Alps; the Arab from the desert, and the Asiatic nomad from the steppes of

Sarmatia. Through the midst of this human sea there passed at intervals the high-

born lords and ladies of Rome, borne on litters by brawny slaves gathered from

the ends of the earth.

Nature, in ancient as in modern times, occasionally brought forth monsters. Nor

was the curiosity of such miserable beings to be seen, or of others to see them,

less in the world that was than in the world that is. It was a common sight in

the streets of Rome to witness a crowd of excited people gathered in a circle and

craning their necks to catch a glance at some deformity on exhibition-some giant,

dwarf, or monster inviting the gaze of the rabble in public.

The sentiments of Rome found free expression on the walls. All kinds of

preferences, jokes, spites, and purposes were here written, as if to give vent to

what might not otherwise be said. In these inscriptions the average candidate for

public office saw himself as he was, rather than as he ought to be. On one of the

walls of Pompeii we read, "I beg you to make Vettius aedile." It is merely an

electioneering speech, preserved by the ashes of Vesuvius. Another notice runs

thus: "On the 28th of August there will be a show of wild beasts, and Felix will

fight with bears." A certain Cornelius, although about to die of consumption, is

advised to go and hang himself! One hungry loafer produces this sentiment: "Who

invites me not to his table, him I hold as a barbarian." Even the girls have

their little idyll. In one place we find, "Methe loves Christus," and in another,

"Auge loves Amoenius." And the Latin is generally as bad as the sentiment is


One of the marked aspects of the civilization of the city was the thermae, or

baths. Some of these are among the finest works of Roman architecture. The

people, even the primitive Latins, were specially fond of bathing. With the

coming of wealth and luxury, nature's plan of a naked plunge into the mountain

stream gave place to elegant structures for the accommodation and delight of the

bather. The baths thus provided were the frigidarium, or cold; the tepidarium, or

tepid; and the calidarium, or hot. These were generally taken in succession.

After the bather had been raised to a sweating heat, cold water was poured upon

him and he then entered the frigidarium.

For the swimmers, great marble basins, supplied by conduits with abundance of

pure water, were provided. To these bathing establishments great attention was

given by the public authorities. The emperors vied with each other in the

erection of sumptuous thermae. Agrippa sought the favor of the people by the

building of fine baths near the Pantheon; while the thermae of Titus, Caracalla,

and Diocletian, even in their present ruined condition, have excited the wonder

and admiration of posterity.

The Romans were not slow to discover the