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for the city, and that the equity of the laws thus framed gave great

peace to the colony. Certain it is that the work of Zaleucus was

heartily praised by Pindar and Demosthenes as a model worthy of

imitation. The lawgiver is said to have flourished about 660 B. C. Of

the general character of the Hellenic cities in Magna Graecia something

has been already said in that part of the Eighth Book relating to the

Sicilian expedition of the Greeks; and not a little remains to be

presented hereafter.

Resuming the consideration of the geography of the Italian states, we

come on the northwest of Lucania to the coast province of Campania. It

is bounded on the east by Samnium, on the north by Latium, and on the

west by the sea. The coast line is more broken than that of any other

part of Italy. A large portion of the district is that celebrated plain

noted in antiquity for its productiveness, and in modern times for its

malaria. It is the most beautiful and fertile province in all Italy. The

climate is one of the mildest and most equable in the world. The

landscapes were the delight of ancient travelers, who never wearied in

their praises of the beauty on every hand. In two places the uniformity

of the plain, sloping gently from the Apennines to the sea, is broken by

remarkable natural features. The first is a group of volcanic hills

rising abruptly from the level country between Cumae and Naples. The

loftiest of these elevations is the Mons Gaurus, whose slopes produced

the finest wines in all Italy. On the other side of Naples is the great

isolated peak of Vesuvius, a true volcano, which before A. D. 79 was

reported by Strabo to be "extinct for want of fuel," but after that date

was never suspected of having gone out.

After its fertility and climate the next most important advantage

possessed by Campania was its sea coast. This is in many places indented

in such a manner as to furnish a haven for ships. The Bay of Naples is

justly ranked among the finest in the world, as it is certainly the

finest in Italy. Around its shores the luxurious Romans built numerous

towns and villas, so that, according to Strabo, the whole bay seemed to

be lined with a continuous city. Just north of Naples, and included

within the headland of Misenum, was the Bay of Baiae, with two excellent

harbors. In the times of the Empire this region became one of the most

frequented in Italy, being a populous seaport and place of resort for

the wealthy.

There is little doubt that the genial climate of Campania had an

enervating effect upon the people. In ancient times the inhabitants