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however, were a pastoral rather than an agricultural people. The

mountaineers reared herds of goats, and among the foot-hills flocks of

sheep and droves of mules bore witness to the interest taken by this

primitive people in the breeding of stock. The other tribes in this part

of the country devoted themselves to like pursuits; but the Vestini and

Marrucini devoted more attention to the tillage of fields than to the

raising of animals.

The state of Apulia was one of the largest, and historically considered,

not the least important in Italy. The limits of the province were very

variable. By some geographers it has been made to include the whole of

Southeastern Italy, from the country of the Frentani on the north to the

extremity of the peninsula. This would embrace the whole of the district

known to the Romans as Calabria. It does not appear, however, that such

an extension of the name Apulia is warranted by the facts. The physical

features of this part of Italy were strongly marked, and contributed, no

doubt, to shape the history of the country. The northern half of the

province, extending from the Tifernus to the Aufidus, is a continuous

plain, sloping from the mountains to the sea. In one part the Apulian

Apennines, here broken into isolated masses, reach the Adriatic, and,

rising in Mount Garganus, constitute the spur of Italy. The hill country

is covered with forests. The plain of northern Apulia is a district of

great fertility. The whole province was noted for its fine breeds of

horses and sheep, the latter being regarded as the best in Italy.

The district known as Calabria constitutes the south-eastern portion of

the Italian peninsula. By the Greeks this province was called Massapia,

or Japygia. It is the heel of Italy. It may be considered as extending

from the promontory of Garganus to the frontiers of Lucania. On the west

it was limited by a line drawn from the Gulf of Tarentum at a point a

little west of the city of that name to a point on the Adriatic between

Egnetia and Brundusium. From the position of these boundaries it will

be seen that Calabria was very nearly identical with the present

province of Otranto. Vergil has described the Calabrian landscape as "a

low coast of dusky hills." The soil is calcareous, but is well adapted

to the cultivation of the olive and the vine. The country was also noted

for its abundant yield of honey. The Calabrians, like their northern

neighbors, were famous breeders of horses, and the cavalry service of

the Republic and Empire was frequently recruited from this province.

On the west, between the Gulf of Tarentum and the Tyrrhenian sea, lay

the large State of Lucania. On the south it was bounded by Bruttium; on

the north, by Samnium, Apulia, and Campania. This province was

originally a part of the ancient OEnotria, the name Lucania being

unknown until after the time of Thucydides. The physical character of

the district is, like that of so many of the other Italian states,

determined by the Apennines, which traverse the whole country from north

to south, rising in the group of Monte Pollino to the height of seven

thousand feet above the level of the sea. Between the central chain and

the western coast, the whole country is filled up with rugged mountains,

but on the eastern coast, the hills fall off more gradually, and near

the borders of the Gulf, extensive plains stretch from the foothills to

the shore. The products of the province are almost identical with those

of northern Lucania, the olive and vine being the chief gifts of nature

to the yeomen.

Bruttium constitutes the foot of Italy. By the ancient geographers, the

name of the people, the Bruttii, was always used to designate the

country, the word Bruttium being invented by more recent writers. The

land so named was bounded on the north by Lucania, and all other sides

by the sea. Along the Lucanian frontier the breadth of the district is

no more than thirty miles, but further south the width is considerably

greater. The entire length of the peninsula is about sixty miles, and

its shape has been forever likened to a boot, the heel of which is

formed by Calabria on the other side of the Gulf. The country is

traversed through its whole extent by the Apennines, now broken into

irregular masses, and in the northern part scattered from coast to

coast. The mountains are cov-