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Meanwhile, in B. C. 222, Cleomenes, the young "king" of Sparta-for that

unchangeable commonwealth still clung to its traditional names-not

liking the growing ascendancy of the League, made war on the

confederated states, and the latter called on Antigonus Doson to aid

them in resisting the Lacedaemonian aspirant. The two armies which were

brought into the field by the respective parties met on the field of

Sellasia, and Cleomenes was overthrown and driven into Egypt. That

country, in the mean time had passed from the hands of the great

Philadelphus to his son Ptolemy Euergetes, from whom the Spartan refugee

now sought protection and vindication.

For fourteen years Antigonus Doson remained as regent of Macedonia, and

was then, at death, succeeded in authority by his ward Philip, who was

destined in a short time to be embroiled with the Romans, and to become

one of the actors in the complicated drama in which the new Republic of

the West stretched out her scepter over all of the contending parties.

Soon after the accession of Philip to power the Achaean League made a

rash invasion of AEtolia and were repulsed with great loss. The

AEtolians pressed home their advantage, and the Achaeans applied to

Philip for aid. The monarch repaired into Greece, and undertook to

settle all difficulties by conciliatory measures proposed in a general

conference of the states. But the business resulted in nothing, and that

conflict ensued known as the Second Social War. In this contest Philip

took the side of the League, and for four years (B. C. 222-218) upheld

the cause against the AEtolians and their allies. At the end of this

time the Nemaean festival was celebrated, and while the festivities were

on, the news came of Hannibal's great victory over the Romans on the

field of Thrasimenus.

The effect of one violence was to counteract another. The Greek states

were led to consider the tremendous political powers which had been

developed in the West, and how they themselves were thereby imminently

exposed to conquest. This reflection led to a settlement. Even the

AEtolians were able to see that, unless all Greece should be united, she

would in the near future fall an easy prey to one or other of the powers

of the West.

Turning to the East, and resuming the history of the Greek kingdom of

Syria we find on the throne as successor to Seleucus his son, Antiochus

Soter-a title conferred on account of his victorious defense of the

country against the Gauls. He came to the throne in B. C. 280, and had a

disturbed reign of eighteen years. His first military operation was a

campaign against Bithynia, which for some time had been in a state of

insurrection. The expedition was intrusted by the king to his general,

Patroclus; but the Bithynians soon compelled him to withdraw in

disgrace. Nor was the campaign which was undertaken in B. C. 280 against

the kingdom of Pergamus more successful. A few years later Antiochus was

induced to engage in a broil which proved to be still more unfortunate

to himself and kingdom. A certain Magas, who had been appointed by

Ptolemy Philadelphus, as governor of Cyrene, raised the standard of

revolt and induced Antiochus, who was his father-in-law, to espouse his

cause. This injudicious action cost the king of Syria dearly. The

powerful fleet of Ptolemy struck right and left at the Syrian

dependencies, and while Magas gained nothing but defeat, his father-in-

law was, in the course of a four years' war, mulcted of the fine

provinces of Lycia, Pamphylia, Caria, and Cilicia.

Soon afterwards, in B. C. 262, the barbarous Gauls, who were now firmly

established in Asia Minor, and had received vast accessions from their

countrymen in Europe, made such havoc by their ravages that Antiochus

resolved on their extermination. With a large army, he met and assaulted

the barbarians before the walls of Ephesus. The conflict was one of the

most bloody and desperate of the century; and such were the valor and

determination of the Gauls that the Syrian army was entirely routed and

Antiochus killed. The title of Soter, which he had borne for