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Greek kingdom of Syria. Ptolemy Philadelphus reigned in Egypt; Ceraunus

in Macedonia. By him the sons of Lysimachus were murdered, Arsinoe

driven into Egypt, and Antigonus, son of Demetrius, excluded from the


But the blind Nemesis, ever on the trail of the butcher, soon sent her

avenging ministers to balance the disturbed scales of justice. The Gauls

came. Having acquired rather than appeased an appetite for plunder

during their recent invasion of Italy, they now poured into Thrace and

Macedonia. Without proper preparation or due caution in the research of

such a foe, Ceraunus went forth and gave them battle. The result was

that his army was cut to pieces by the barbarians and himself slain in

the fight. The invaders then made their way into Asia Minor, selected

their province, conquered it, and gave it the name of Galatia.

After a long struggle with King Pyrrhus and the Gauls, Antigonus, the

son of Demetrius, at length secured the throne of Macedonia and took the

title of Antigonus II. In a reign of twenty-seven years (B. C. 269-242)

he embroiled himself but little with the affairs of surrounding

kingdoms. In an attempt, however, which he made upon the liberties of

the Greek states, he stirred up so much resentment that, under the lead

of the Achaians an alliance, known as the Achaean League, hereafter to

act a conspicuous part in the concluding drama of Grecian history, was

formed against him and his schemes. In B. C. 242 he died at the advanced

age of eighty, and left his crown to his son Demetrius II., whose reign

of ten years was not marked by any notable events. His ambitions-such as

they were-were successfully resisted by the League, and his petty wars

with the AEtolians, Illyrians, and Thracians had no important results.

At his death the crown descended to his son Philip, then but three years

of age, who was placed under the regency of his uncle, Antigonus Doson.