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their liberties. As soon as quiet was restored. Demetrius proceeded to

Cyprus, which was now occupied by the forces and partisans of Ptolemy,

and laid siege to Salamis, the capital of the island. The Egyptian ruler

came out with a large squadron to the relief of the city; but in a

severe naval battle he was so completely defeated that he could offer no

further resistance to the progress of his enemy. Salamis and the

other towns of the island surrendered, and were transferred to

Antigonus, in whose name Demetrius made the conquest.

The blow inflicted on Ptolemy in his unfortunate naval battle suggested

to Antigonus the invasion of Egypt. With a powerful army of ninety

thousand men and eighty elephants he marched through Syria to the coast,

and then embarked for the mouth of the Nile. A storm, however, shattered

the squadron, and on arriving in Egypt he found a united people and a

country rendered almost impregnable by the skill and energy of his


Such was the aspect of affairs that he was obliged to adopt the

humiliating expedient of retreating without striking a blow. In order,

however, to redeem his reputation, he directed his flotilla to the

island of Rhodes, and undertook the subjugation of the capital city. For

more than a year Demetrius beat about the ramparts with every species of

enginery known to the military skill of the times; but the Rhodians,

assisted by Ptolemy, held out against him, until at last he was obliged

(B. C. 305) to abandon the siege and grant to Rhodes her independence.


Notwithstanding these reverses to his arms, Antigonus still indulged the

ambitious project of regaining all the dominions of the Empire. He

looked to the subjugation of Egypt, Macedonia, and the East. So

aggressive were his movements that the former league of Seleucus,

Ptolemy and Lysimachus against him was renewed, and both parties

prepared for war. Seleucus entered Cappadocia with twenty thousand men,

and the leaders came from the West to join his forces. It was now B.C.

301, and another crisis had arrived in the history of the nations

subdued by Alexander. Antigonus and Demetrius, at the head of their

army, met the allies at the little village of IPSUS, and here the

decisive battle was fought. Antigonus was slain. His army was routed;

and Demetrius barely escaped with eight thousand men. A new division of

territory followed; Coele-Syria and Palestine fell to Ptolemy; the

larger part of Asia Minor to Lysimachus. Antioch became the capital.

In this strait of his affairs, Demetrius was suddenly relieved by

fortune. Seleucus, now jealous of the growing power of Lysimachus, came

to the rescue and formed an alliance with Demetrius by marrying his

daughter Stratonice. The father, whose political estate was thus

unexpectedly improved, at once resumed the aggressive, retook Cilicia

from Lysimachus, and, in B. C. 295, made a successful invasion of

Greece. In the next year he was declared king of Macedon, an incentive

thereto being his marriage with Phila, the daughter of Antipater.

As soon as he was well seated in authority Demetrius renewed those

visionary schemes which his father had entertained even to the day of

his death. The son was equally ambitious, and would make good his claims

to universal dominion. He accordingly organized a powerful army with a

view to entering upon a career of conquest. At the outset he was

opposed by Lysimachus and Ptolemy. While his attention was directed to

these __________________________________________ 1 It was in

commemoration of the aid given to the Rhodians by Ptolemy in this

memorable siege that they conferred on him the title of Soter, or

Savior-a title more generous than just; for it was to their own heroism

that they owed their deliverance.