UNIVERSAL HISTORY-TEE ANCIENT WORLD.
entrusted to Leosthenes, who advanced at the head of about twenty
thousand men and took possession of the pass of Thermopylae. From this
stronghold Antipater was unable to dislodge him, and was himself so much
worsted in the battle that he fell back and defended himself in the town
of Lamia, near the Malian gulf.
Word was now sent to Asia Minor asking Leonatus, the governor of
Phrygia, for reinforcements. The latter made a rapid march into
Macedonia, and Leosthenes meanwhile, in the attempt to prevent a
junction of his enemies, made several unsuccessful assaults on Lamia, in
one of which he was killed. His successor, Antiphilus, hearing of the
approach of Leonatus, went forth to meet him on the northern confines of
Thessaly. Here a bloody battle was fought, in which victory remained
with the Greeks. Leonatus was slain and the larger part of his army
sought refuge in the mountains. But Antipater soon succeeded in rallying
his forces and gained a complete victory over Antiphilus. The Greeks
sued for peace, but the Macedonian would not treat with them except as
separate states. This put Athens at his mercy. He dictated to the
Athenians a change of government and compelled them to surrender
Hyperides and Demosthenes, the two principal orators of the democracy.
The former, however, made good his escape from the city, and the latter,
rather than fall into the hands of his enemies, ended his life by
poison. The Athenians perceived that the magnanimity of Philip and
Alexander was no longer to be expected from the court of Macedon.
After the overthrow of Perdiccas at Pelusium, it was within the power of
Ptolemy to seize the regency for himself. Instead, however, of taking
this ambitious course, he contented himself with nominating for that
important office his friend Arrhidaeus, one of the conqueror's generals
not hitherto conspicuous. He it was who, conducting the funeral pageant
of Alexander, by way of Egypt to the African oasis, had been persuaded
by Ptolemy to erect the royal tomb in Alexandria instead of the desert.
After the overthrow and death of Craterus at the hands of Eurnenes, the
passions of the Egyptian army were greatly inflamed. They heard of the
destruction of their old general with mortification and rage. This was
directed first of all against Perdiccas as the cause of the unseemly
broil between friends. After the death of the Regent they looked to
Eumenes as the responsible representative of the mischief, and so they
resolved to exterminate him and all his confederates. Fifty of the
leading adherents of the late Perdiccas, including his brother Alcetas,
were proscribed, and the army at once set out through Syria to enforce
the edict. At Triparadus, however, they were met by Eurydice, the wife
of Arrhidaeus, and by her persuaded to abandon the enterprise. Her
influence became, for the hour, well-nigh omnipotent, and when
Antipater, who had been sent for, arrived at the scene, he was amazed to
find that not even his presence was sufficient to break the spell with
which the queen had bound the soldiery. Attempting to bring his old
soldiers to their senses, they turned upon him and would have put him to
death, but for the timely interference of Seleuces and Antigonus.
Presently, however, a reaction set in, such as could hardly be looked
for except in a mutinous army, and the veterans made haste to proclaim
Antipater regent! Accepting the trust at their hands, he returned to
Macedonia, in B. C. 322, and assumed the duties of directing the affairs
of the dissolving Empire.
Several changes had now become necessary in the provincial governments.
Eumenes was declared an outlaw, and his satrapy of Cappadocia conferred
on Nicanor. Clytus was appointed to the governorship of Lydia, and
Cilicia was conferred on Philoxenes. As yet, however, all of these
provinces lying within the dominions of Eumenes, were under his
authority, and must be taken from him by force of arms before these new
governors could gain possession of their respective territories. The
regent Arrhidaeus was now confined in his authority to Hellespontine
Phrygia. Last and greatest of the provinces was Babylonia, which was
awarded to the young and ambitious Seleuces.
These arrangements having been completed,