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UNIVERSAL HISTORY-TEE ANCIENT WORLD.

entrusted to Leosthenes, who advanced at the head of about twenty

thousand men and took possession of the pass of Thermopylae. From this

stronghold Antipater was unable to dislodge him, and was himself so much

worsted in the battle that he fell back and defended himself in the town

of Lamia, near the Malian gulf.

Word was now sent to Asia Minor asking Leonatus, the governor of

Phrygia, for reinforcements. The latter made a rapid march into

Macedonia, and Leosthenes meanwhile, in the attempt to prevent a

junction of his enemies, made several unsuccessful assaults on Lamia, in

one of which he was killed. His successor, Antiphilus, hearing of the

approach of Leonatus, went forth to meet him on the northern confines of

Thessaly. Here a bloody battle was fought, in which victory remained

with the Greeks. Leonatus was slain and the larger part of his army

sought refuge in the mountains. But Antipater soon succeeded in rallying

his forces and gained a complete victory over Antiphilus. The Greeks

sued for peace, but the Macedonian would not treat with them except as

separate states. This put Athens at his mercy. He dictated to the

Athenians a change of government and compelled them to surrender

Hyperides and Demosthenes, the two principal orators of the democracy.

The former, however, made good his escape from the city, and the latter,

rather than fall into the hands of his enemies, ended his life by

poison. The Athenians perceived that the magnanimity of Philip and

Alexander was no longer to be expected from the court of Macedon.

After the overthrow of Perdiccas at Pelusium, it was within the power of

Ptolemy to seize the regency for himself. Instead, however, of taking

this ambitious course, he contented himself with nominating for that

important office his friend Arrhidaeus, one of the conqueror's generals

not hitherto conspicuous. He it was who, conducting the funeral pageant

of Alexander, by way of Egypt to the African oasis, had been persuaded

by Ptolemy to erect the royal tomb in Alexandria instead of the desert.

After the overthrow and death of Craterus at the hands of Eurnenes, the

passions of the Egyptian army were greatly inflamed. They heard of the

destruction of their old general with mortification and rage. This was

directed first of all against Perdiccas as the cause of the unseemly

broil between friends. After the death of the Regent they looked to

Eumenes as the responsible representative of the mischief, and so they

resolved to exterminate him and all his confederates. Fifty of the

leading adherents of the late Perdiccas, including his brother Alcetas,

were proscribed, and the army at once set out through Syria to enforce

the edict. At Triparadus, however, they were met by Eurydice, the wife

of Arrhidaeus, and by her persuaded to abandon the enterprise. Her

influence became, for the hour, well-nigh omnipotent, and when

Antipater, who had been sent for, arrived at the scene, he was amazed to

find that not even his presence was sufficient to break the spell with

which the queen had bound the soldiery. Attempting to bring his old

soldiers to their senses, they turned upon him and would have put him to

death, but for the timely interference of Seleuces and Antigonus.

Presently, however, a reaction set in, such as could hardly be looked

for except in a mutinous army, and the veterans made haste to proclaim

Antipater regent! Accepting the trust at their hands, he returned to

Macedonia, in B. C. 322, and assumed the duties of directing the affairs

of the dissolving Empire.

Several changes had now become necessary in the provincial governments.

Eumenes was declared an outlaw, and his satrapy of Cappadocia conferred

on Nicanor. Clytus was appointed to the governorship of Lydia, and

Cilicia was conferred on Philoxenes. As yet, however, all of these

provinces lying within the dominions of Eumenes, were under his

authority, and must be taken from him by force of arms before these new

governors could gain possession of their respective territories. The

regent Arrhidaeus was now confined in his authority to Hellespontine

Phrygia. Last and greatest of the provinces was Babylonia, which was

awarded to the young and ambitious Seleuces.

These arrangements having been completed,