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afterwards he selected a site for Bucephalia, so named in honor of his

famous horse, Bucephalus. The conqueror then entrusted to Craterus a

division of his army, with instructions to build and fortify the new

cities. He himself with the remaining division again set out towards the

east. He crossed first the river Acesines, and in the region beyond

conquered a second prince named Porus. He then passed the Hydraotes, and

came into a country inhabited by independent tribes, who attempted in

their half-barbarous way to impede his progress. A battle was fought

with them and they were routed in confusion. They then retired into

their fortress of Sangala, and having refused to capitulate, were

besieged by the Macedonian army. For a brief period the town was

obstinately defended, but was presently carried by storm. Seventeen

thousand of the Indians were killed in the assault, and seventy thousand

more were made prisoners. The city was leveled to the ground, and the

confederate tribes not involved in its destruction fled beyond the

Hyphasis for safety.

All of the vast region known as the Punjaub, or Land of the Five Rivers,

was now completely subjugated. Of the great streams, by which this

country was watered, the Hyphasis, just mentioned, was the most

easterly. This river, therefore, constituted the natural limit of Upper

India. But no corresponding limit was found to the ambition of

Alexander. He immediately began to prepare to cross the Hyphasis, and to

continue his progress to the East. But here at last the fates had

decreed that the son of Philip should pause. The arrow shot from

strongest bow into highest sky must turn somewhere and seek again the

earth in its flight. If the impulse of conquest still bore onward the

conqueror himself, it was no longer felt in the breasts of his generals

and men. On the banks of the Hyphasis they hesitated, wavered, refused

to go further. In vain did the baffled Macedonian attempt to persuade

his commanders and soldiers to accompany him to the extreme of Asia. In

vain he promised them an easy and circuitous route through victory and

spoil to the ocean of India. Then they should sail homeward by a brief

and pleasant passage through the Persian Gulf. But destiny was fixed-

they would go no further. So, to conceal his defeat and mortification,

the conqueror consulted the gods and announced that the divine oracles

had indeed decreed a return to Europe. Under the breastplate of Mars

appeared the duplicity of the priest and the shrewdness of the


So the Macedonian proceeded to build twelve pillars on the bank of

Hyphasis, and left them there as monuments of his victory and as limits

of his progress towards the rising sun. To Porus he then entrusted the

government of the seven provinces-with their two thousand cities-which

he had conquered in his Indian campaign, and himself immediately

prepared to descend the Hydaspes to the Indus and the Indus to the sea.

As soon as the arrangements for the return to Europe could be completed,

the conqueror formed his army in three divisions, giving the first to

Hephaestion, the second to Craterus, and reserving the third for

himself. The first two divisions were ordered to proceed along the river

bank, while the commander himself, with his division, embarked on board

a fleet built for the purpose by the Phoenician and Cypriot carpenters

belonging to the army. Frequently in his progress down the river the

conqueror was hindered by the hostility of native tribes. In one

instance a nation called the Malli so greatly retarded his movements

that he felt constrained to go on shore and besiege their capital. This

was defended with much spirit by the barbarians, until Alexander, vexed

with the delay, ordered the place to be carried by storm. The assault

was at once made, and every thing fell before the charge of the

Macedonians until they came to the citadel. Here the ramparts had to be

mounted with scaling-ladders. These the king at once ordered to be

brought forward; but becoming angry at what to him seemed unnecessary

delay, he snatched a ladder himself, placed it against the wall, and in

spite of the vociferous remonstrance of his companions began rapidly

mounting to the top.

In order to save their king from what seemed certain destruction, the