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UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

remembered in a disparaging way, in the sending home by the conqueror of

trophies from his battles. In his presents and messages to the Greeks it

was his habit to add the clause, "excepting the Lacedaemonians." Agis,

the Spartan king, now sought to neutralize these indignities by

fomenting discord among the Grecian states to the end that Alexander

might be obliged to abandon his far-reaching plans for the settlement of

petty rebellions at home. In this work Memnon, the Rhodian, was an able

coadjutor, while in the distance stood the Persian monarch ready and

eager always to furnish both the means and the motives of distraction to

the fearless prince who had invaded his dominions.

In furtherance of his plans the Lacedaemonian king canvassed the

republican states of Peloponnesus, and induced several of them to join

him in inviting Darius to send a portion of his army to occupy Southern

Greece. At the same time Memnon, who now had command of the Persian

fleet, was urged to assume the aggressive in the AEgean. Thus was it

planned to compel the withdrawal of Alexander from the East. The king of

Persia, however, not fully confident that the Macedonian could be

frightened from his purpose by a noise behind him, began to gather

armies and prepare all needed means of defense.

The approach of spring, B. C. 333, found Alexander in Pamphylia.

Gathering information of the measures adopted by his enemies to compass

his destruction, he determined to retire to Gordium, the capital of

Lower Phrygia, and make that place a rendezvous for the various

divisions of his army. The time had come for the return of those who,

under Ptolemy and Meleager, had spent the winter in Macedonia. With them

large reinforcements were expected to arrive. After the consolidation of

his forces the king would determine the plan of the year's campaign.

In his way from the Lycian coasts to Phrygia, Alexander had to cross the

ridges of Taurus. In doing so he encountered several warlike tribes, who

attacked him with fury, only to be dispersed. The proper pursuit and

punishment of these half-savage bands was, however, quite impossible in

such a region; for the mountains gave them immunity. The city of

Celaenae, the metropolis of Phrygia, opened her gates to receive the new

master instead of the old. What was it to the inhabitants of these towns

of Asia Minor whether they should pay tribute to Darius or to the son of

Philip? Only this-that the son of Philip was the more generous ruler.

All Phrygia, after the surrender of the city, submitted to the

conqueror, and readily accepted the provisions which he made for the

future management of the province.

Before reaching Gordium, the king received intelligence of the successes

of Memnon in the AEgean. The island of Chios had been taken by the

Persian fleet. All of Lesbos except Mitylene had been reduced, and that

city was closely invested. It was the purpose of Memnon, as soon as the

siege could be brought to a successful conclusion, to make his way to

the Hellespont, fall upon the coast of Macedonia, and compel the return

of Alexander for the defense of his own dominions. Nor was it likely

that Antipater, who had been left by the king at Pella to serve as

regent during his absence, could be able to raise a sufficient armament

to beat back the invaders from his coasts. The situation was not without

its dangers; but before the crisis could be reached in which Alexander

would be obliged to decide between abandoning his own territories to

invasion or giving up his cherished and inherited ambition of conquering

Persia, he was relieved of all anxiety by the death of Memnon. The loss

of that able commander was a severe blow to Persian hopes in the West.

The fleet could make no further progress, and was presently disbanded.

The AEgean was relieved of Persian domination, and the schemes of the

anti-Macedonian party in Southern Greece were brought to naught. A

reaction set in Alexander's favor, and from nearly all the states of

continental Greece reinforcements went forward to join him in Asia. It

was seen, moreover, that contingents of troops began to move from the

Perso-Grecian towns in Ionia and elsewhere to swell the forces of Darius

in the East; from which it was