Page 0638



It required, however, but a short time for the walls to be knocked down

by the battering rams and the garrison dispersed. Such was the fame of

invincibility which already attached to the name of Alexander that the

Persian fleet, lying in the harbor of Miletus, made no effort to save

the city from falling. Thus was Miletus added to the trophies of


In the mean time, Memnon had given special attention to the defenses of

Halicarnassus, and the garrison was thoroughly drilled in anticipation

of an attack. On arriving before the city, Alexander found that the

walls were surrounded with a ditch thirty cubits in width and fifteen

cubits deep. It was necessary that this should be filled up before the

rams could be brought to bear on the ramparts. The garrison was

vigilant, and from the walls discharged every species of missile upon

the assailants. But the siege was pressed with vigor, and Memnon was

soon brought to such straits that he found it necessary to withdraw by

night. In doing so he set fire to his enginery to prevent it from

falling into the hands of Alexander. By this means a portion of the city

was burned. The king took possession without further resistance, and

with his usual moderation, quieted the alarm of the people. The citadel

was still held by a portion of the forces of Memnon, but Alexander, not

deeming it prudent to consume time in the reduction of the place, left

Ptolemy with a body of three thousand men to keep the province in

subjection, and appointed the princess Ada, who had put herself under

his protection, to be regent of Caria while he should prosecute his


The next point to which the conqueror directed his march was the city of

Tralles. This place was speedily reduced, and the expedition was then

directed into Phrygia. The winter was now at hand, and according to all

precedent military operations must cease. Not so, however, with

Alexander, who informed his army of his intention to continue the

campaign eastward, so that if Darius should accept the challenge he

might meet him in the following spring on the confines of Syria. To

quiet all discontent, however, he gave free permission to all who had

been recently married to return to their wives and spend the winter

months in Macedonia. Three of his generals-Ptolemy, Coenus, and

Meleager-were of this number, and to them he gave the command of the

division which was to return home. He then ordered Parmenio to take his

station at Sardis, so as to preserve an uninterrupted line of

communication between Macedonia and the army.

With the remainder of his forces Alexander now set out through Lycia and

Pamphylia. His object was by the reduction of all the seaport towns to

make the Persian fleet useless; for without friendly harbors a squadron

in these waters could do no harm. In his progress through the coast

provinces the four principal cities-Telmissus, Pinara, Xanthus, and

Patara-made voluntary submission, and more than thirty of the smaller

towns sent embassies and made their peace with the conqueror. Phaselis,

the capital of Lower Lycia, tendered him by the hands of her ambassador

a golden crown, and solicited his friendship and protection. All the

province was brought into submission, and particularly was a certain

fortress, held by the barbarous Pisidians, reduced by assault and the

garrison expelled from the country.

Meanwhile the enemies of the king, unable to oppose him in the field,

undertook to secure his destruction by treachery. The scheme was worthy

of its authors. A certain son of the Macedonian prince, Aeropus, also

named Alexander, whom the great Alexander on his accession to the throne

had admitted to his friendship, was now made the tool of a conspiracy by

which the king was to be put out of the way. It will be remembered that

Amyntas, who was himself a claimant to the throne, had fled to the

Persian court, from which great hot-bed of treachery he became an active

member of the plot. He sent a certain Asisines into Phrygia as a

pretended messenger to the satrap of that province, but really as a

bearer of dispatches to the spurious Alexander. The latter was advised

that if he would procure the murder of the king he should himself have

the throne of Macedonia under the protection and favor of Persia.