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Alexander, who was complimented by this disposition of the Persian

forces. He saw moreover that if he should be able to break that part of

the enemy's line which had been strengthened to resist him personally,

the rest would, in all probability, after the manner of Asiatics, fall

into confusion and fly from the field. He accordingly determined to

charge through the river and into the face of the foe. The first body

consisting of the peltasts and cavalry rushed through the stream and up

the opposite banks. Here they were met by the Persians in superior

numbers and after a brief struggle were driven back. The time thus

gained, however, enabled Alexander to cross with the main division of

heavy armed soldiers.

The fight now began in earnest. For some time it seemed doubtful whether

the Macedonians could force the enemy from their position. Alexander

exhibited the greatest personal bravery. He was in the thickest of the

fight and when his lance was broken quickly supplied its place with

another. He charged with the greatest impetuosity and with his own hand

killed the commander of the Persian cavalry. At one time he was

surrounded by the enemy and beaten down, and was barely rescued by some

courageous friends. At length the Persian cavalry broke and fled


In the mean time Parmenio crossed with the left wing, and had with

greater ease gained a footing on the opposite bank. The opposing Persian

lines had here been weakened to strengthen their left, opposed to

Alexander. It thus happened that Parmenio had a less desperate struggle

for victory than did Alexander. The Persians were scattered from all

parts of the field, and the Greek mercenaries under Omares were soon

borne down by the phalanx, and either killed or captured. Of the

Persians fully ten thousand were slain in battle. Spithridates and

Mithrobazanes, governors of Lydia and Cappadocia, Mithrides, a son-in-

law of Darius, Pharnaces, the queen's brother, Omares, general of the

mercenary Greeks, and many other nobles and distinguished men, were

among the slain. It is stated the loss on the side of the Macedonians

amounted to no more than one hundred and twenty. (1)

Alexander at once gathered the spoils of the battlefield and sent a

portion to each of the states represented in the expedition. The present

in each case was sent with the request that the spoils should be devoted

as a memorial of the joint success of the Macedonians and Greeks against

the enemy of both. The factious Athenians, who had as a matter of fact

so many times broken faith both with the king and his father, were

specially remembered in the distribution of trophies. Three hundred

suits of complete armor, stripped from the bodies of the Persian dead,

were sent to Athens to be hung up in the temple of Pallas Athene; and to

accompany this gift the avenger of Europe on Asia dictated the following



The battle of the Granicus made more easy the future progress of the

conqueror. The terror of his name preceded him, and town after town fell

into his power. Resistance almost ceased, inasmuch that where the king

had expected hard conflicts he met no opposition. Dascylium, the

Bithynian capital, threw open her gates to Parmenio. Sardis, the rich

metropolis of Lydia, strong both by nature and military preparation, was

surrendered with obsequious readiness. The satrap, Mithranes,

accompanied by the dignitaries of the city, went out and met Alexander

seven miles beyond the gates, and humbly implored his considerate mercy

for themselves and their subjects.

From Sardis Alexander moved forward to Ephesus and Miletus. In both of

these cities the strife of the Persian and Macedo-

_________________________ 1 It is said that Alexander was deeply

affected by the loss of those slain in his first battle. Twenty- five of

the royal guards, mostly young men of fiery spirit like himself, fell in

the conflict near the person of their king. He ordered statues of the

valiant soldiers to be cast by Lycippus and placed in the city of Dium,

Macedonia. He also gave to the parents and other relatives of those who

fell at the Granicus the freedom of their respective cities; and the

children of his dead soldiers were forever exempted from taxation.