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MACEDONIA-REIGN OF PHILIP.

Returning to the relation of Philip to the Greeks, the next important

complications to be noted were those arising from the Social War. Rhodes, Chios,

Byzantium, and Cos, supported by king Mausolus, rose against the Athenians and

entered into a league for mutual defense. A declaration was published that the

members of the alliance were "resolved henceforward to protect their own commerce

with their own fleets; and wanting thus nothing from the Athenian navy they

would, of course, pay nothing for its support." At the same time an insurrection

broke out in the island of Euboea; and the Thebans, being solicited to aid those

in rebellion, passed over thither with an army. But the Athenian general,

Timotheus, succeeded without great difficulty in bringing the insurgents to

submission, and as for the Thebans, who had rashly rushed into the conflict, they

were glad to capitulate with the privilege of retiring from the island.

At this juncture, however, and before Timotheus could proceed against the other

states in insurrection, the alarming news was borne from the North that Philip,

justly angered at the Athenians for having induced the inhabitants of Pydna to

revolt against him, had made an alliance with Olynthus, thus threatening the

overthrow of Potidaea, Methone, and all the other dependencies of Athens in that

region. Owing, however, to the distracted condition of Attic public opinion, it

was thought better to enter into negotiations with Philip and the Olynthians

rather than to take up the sword. Thus would the Athenians be left free to bring

the Social War to a successful conclusion. Ambassadors were accordingly

dispatched from Athens to Macedon, and a counter embassy was presently sent by

Philip.

Not much headway was made, however, toward the establishment of peace. The

politic Macedonian king made some concessions to the Athenians, especially by the

surrender of the town Anthemus, but he reserved his settled purpose to wrench

from the Greeks, at the earliest opportunity, the possession of Amphipolis. Nor

was the occasion long deferred. Having fomented the discord which already existed

in the city, and strengthened as far as practicable the Macedonian party among

the Amphipolitans, he suddenly besieged the place and compelled a surrender. The

Athenian party within the walls was subjected to no persecutions. The prisoners

were set at liberty, only a few of the more rampant leaders of the Athenian

faction being reserved for banishment.

Having secured this important conquest, Philip immediately turned his attention

to the two towns of Pydna and Potidaea. In both of these cities, as well as in

all the other Chalcidician towns, a strong party remained attached to the

interests of the king, and by a prudent use of this friendly faction the work of

subjugation was abridged and facilitated. Such was the influence of the king with

the inhabitants of both Pydna and Potidaea that both places were taken without

any prolonged investment or serious opposition from within.

In both captures Philip again displayed his magnanimity. Indeed, Potidaea was

voluntarily restored to the Olynthians, the king. being careful, however, to

protect the Athenian faction from the rage of the natives. His liberality

extended even to supplying with a free hand the needs of those who had been

suddenly reduced by the capitulation to poverty. The effect of this unusual

procedure was still further to strengthen the ever-widening influence of the

Macedonian. All the towns from the borders of Thessaly to the Thracian

Chersonesus, acting of their own accord, renounced their relations with the

Greeks and added themselves to the dominions of the king. Even in the streets of

Athens the praises of Philip were freely spoken by his friends and admirers.

So great was the embarrassment of the Greeks, occasioned by the liberality of the

popular monarch of the North, that the latter was left comparatively free to

prosecute what plan so ever he might adopt for the further extension of his

power. His next enterprise was the conquest of Thrace. The king of this country

was Sitalces-a kind of "genius" being a mixture of ruler and rhapsodist. He

affected in his government the manners of the East. He chose not war as a

pursuit, or to devote himself to those works which the ancients regarded as

heroic. To Iphicrates, the