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Perseus-by which event the Empire founded by Philip was at last

extinguished. Some miles to the north of this city was the town of

Methone, before the walls of which, as will be remembered, the right eye

of Philip was shot out by an archer. Another Pierian town of some

importance was Phylace; and a short distance to the north of this was

Agassae, which was occupied by AEmilius after the battle of Pydna.

The next subdivision of ancient Macedonia was the province of Bottlaea,

situated between the Haliacmon and the Lydias. One of the principal

towns of this district was Alorus, on the left bank of the Haliacmon. At

the mouth of the Lydias was the city of Jehnae, and a hundred and twenty

stadia up that river was Pella, the Macedonian capital.

Emathea was, as already said, the most ancient of the Macedonian

districts. It was the small but fertile region in which was planted the

central root of that great tree which was destined to overshadow the

nation. According to tradition this province was first colonized by a

company of Argives, called the Temenidae. The chief city was AEgse, or

Edessa, which up to the time of Philip was regarded as the capital of

Macedonia. The other important cities were Cydrae, Brysi, Mieza, and

Cyrrhus, in the latter of which was the temple of Athene, built by

Alexander. Nor should failure be made to mention the two cities of

Citium and Idomene, the former of which was the headquarters of Perseus,

and the latter of some note on account of its capture by Sitalces, king

of the Odrysae.

The province of Mygdonia extended from the Axius to the Strymon. It

remained under the dominion of the primitive barbarians until they were

expelled by the Temenidae. The principal river of the district was the

Axius, and the chief town Amydon, which is mentioned in the Iliad as a

place of note. At the mouth of the Axius was the city of Chalastra,

which was one of the first places taken by Xerxes in his invasion of

Greece. On the river Echedorus, which loses itself in a vast marsh close

to the Axius, was situated the ancient city of Thernae, the modern

Thessalonica, one of the most celebrated of the Macedonian cities.

To the south and east of Mygdonia lay the peculiar province of

Chalcidice, consisting of several peninsulas, jutting into the AEgean.

This region was originally colonized by people from the island of

Euboea. The Chalcidicians for a long time maintained their independence,

but were at length subjugated and added to the conquests of the

Macedonian kings. The peninsula of Pallene was of special importance.

Here was said to have occurred the combat between the gods and the

Titans. A more authentic distinction was the possession of the rich city

of Potidaea, which occupied the neck of the isthmus by which Pallene was

joined to the main-land. This place was founded at a very early date by

a colony of Corinthians, but in after times it became a dependency of

Athens. Afterwards, near the same site, was founded by Cassander the

city of Cassandrea, which at one time was the most opulent municipality

in all Macedonia. Other important towns in the peninsula were Clitae,

Aphytis, Neapolis, Thrambus, Mende, and Seione, all of which are

mentioned by Herodotus.

Between Pallene and the next of the three peninsulas, named Sithonia, at

the head of the gulf, was the celebrated city of Olynthus, founded by

Eretrians from Buboea. This corporation at a very early date adopted a

democratic form of government, and taking up the federal system, which

had been so successfully employed by the Athenians, became the center of

that Olynthian league which will occupy our attention in the times of

King Philip. The people of the Sithonian peninsula were of Thracian

origin, though several of the towns-such as Galepsus and Torone-were

founded by Greek colonies.

The third of the Chalcidician peninsulas is called Acte. It is that

tongue of land which terminates in Mount Athos, and which was cut off

from the shore by the canal of Xerxes. Acte abounded in towns, of which

the principal were Sane-on the Singitic gulf-Uranopolis, Dium,

Apollonia, Thyssus, Cleonae, and Acanthus, which stood at the other

extremity of the canal from Sane. This was perhaps the most important

city in this part of Chalcidice,