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UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

he field against him. But the tide soon turned, and in a second battle

the Phocians were routed and their leader killed. Onomarchus succeeded to

the command, and the war continued with varying success and great

barbarity; for the sacrilegious nature of the quarrel embittered the

contest by as much as superstition is more cruel than treason.

Thus by the Social and the Sacred War was Greece weakened. Philip saw in

the distractions of his neighbors on the south an opportunity to

interfere for the aggrandizement of his own influence. First he invaded

Thessaly, where the exaction of Alexander of Pherae and his successors

had so embittered the people that an easy conquest was open to any

liberal minded and sagacious general. The town of Pherae, however, more

subjected to the influence of the recent tyrants than other Thessalian

cities, resisted Philip and was besieged. Onomarchus, the Phocian, who

had received some assistance from the Pheraeans, now sent a force of

seven thousand men to their aid, and Philip was obliged to retire for a

time from the country. Returning, however, with an army of twenty

thousand men he overran all Thessaly, but Onomarchus again marched into

the country and gave the Macedonian battle near the gulf of Pagasae. The

latter was this time completely victorious. The Phocian general was

slain. Philip proclaimed himself the defender of the Delphic shrine, and

was about to march at once into Central Greece, but was turned back by a

strong force posted at Thermopylae.

Now it was that the great Demosthenes appeared in the arena at Athens.

The people of the city divided into a Macedonian and an anti-Macedonian

party. The latter was led by the orator; the former, by his rivals,

Phocion and AEschines. The story of the life of Demosthenes is full of

interest and instruction. Defrauded by his guardians and turned out in

poverty on the world, weak in body, and subject to great dejection, be

began a struggle for preeminence against every disadvantage. His first

public appearance on the bema was a failure; but he applied himself with

indefatigable industry to study and practice, and soon wrested from

public opinion the palm of oratory which twenty-two centuries have not

plucked away.

The subject which then agitated the Athenians-the encroachments of Philip

and the consequent peril to the liberties of Greece-was of a sort to

evoke the highest interest and to arouse the most patriotic passions. In

a series of orations known as the Philippics the orator discussed the

whole question involved in the present state of his country, and more

particularly sought to stimulate the Athenians to a vigorous and united

effort to stay the approach of the Macedonians. His efforts, however,

were comparatively unavailing. In B. C. 352 the assembly voted to

organize a fleet to operate against Philip, but the movement was marked

by neither energy nor success. Two years later the city of Olynthus,

still at the head of the Northern confederacy, sent an urgent appeal to

Athens to assist in repelling the insidious, but-now scarcely disguised,

ambitions of Philip. Demosthenes delivered three orations, known as the

Olynthiacs, on the question thus presented to the assembly. But no

energetic action could be evoked, even by the fiery appeals of the

matchless orator. Greece sat languidly by and saw town after town of the

Olynthian league won over or conquered by Philip, until finally Olynthus

herself was taken, her fortifications leveled, her people sold as slaves,

and the whole Chalcidician peninsula reduced to a Macedonian province.

Meanwhile, the disgraceful Sacred War continued. As long as the treasures

in the Delphian temple held out, the Phocians were able year after year

to hire new armies of