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GREECE-SPARTAN AND THEBAN ASCENDENCIES.

already attracted the attention of the most eminent Greeks of his time.

Nor were there wanting those who could discover in the young prince the

forecasting of a remarkable career.

When Perdiccas was slain by the Illyrians, the crown of Macedonia fell to

his son, with Philip for regent. Two claimants to the throne now arose-

Pausanias, who was supported by the king of Thrace, and Argaeus, with

whom the Athenians were leagued on account of the favor which he had

shown them in gaining possession of Amphipolis.

But Philip, by his address, soon secured the withdrawal of support from

both of the pretenders, and thus brought their cause to naught. Having

thus provided for peace at home, he at once entered upon his campaign

against the Paeonians and Illyrians. Both of these peoples were quickly

and easily subdued. The tactics which Philip had learned from Epaminondas

were put to use in the very first battle, and with terrible effect upon

the Illyrians who were put to utter rout by the heavy column which the

Macedonian massed against a single point in their lines. The effect of

the victory so strengthened Philip at home that by common consent he

assumed the crown; but the son of Perdiccas was treated with

consideration by the new king, who gave him his daughter in marriage.

The first contact of Philip with the Athenians was respecting the

possession of Amphipolis. It will be remembered that this city had been

wrenched from Athens by Brasidas of Sparta, and had subsequently had a

nominal independence. With the organization of the Olynthian league the

members of that confederacy became extremely anxious that Amphipolis

should become a member of the alliance. The position of the city at the

mouth of the Strymon rendered it of vast importance to Philip, whose

ambition reached towards the ocean as well as landward. With

extraordinary skill, not unmixed with craftiness, he secured the

friendliness and support of Athens by promising to give her Amphipolis if

she would yield Pydna to him; and at the same time he procured the

withdrawal of the claim of Olynthus by agreeing to cede to that city the

town of Anthemus. These measures having cleared the field of opposition,

he suddenly laid siege to Amphipolis and took it before assistance could

be rendered by any. He also kept Pydna; and the Olynthians and Athenians

were left to nurse their complaints. The people of Olynthus were soon

placated by the recovery of Potidaea, which town Philip graciously turned

over to them as a kind of compensation for the loss of Amphipolis.

The year B. C. 356 was a fortunate epoch for the Macedonian king. In that

year his general, Parmenio, gained a great victory over the Illyrians, by

which the previous conquest of Philip was strengthened and confirmed. In

the Olympic games the king's chariot won a prize in the face of the

sharpest competition; and last, but not least, a son was born and named

Alexander.

At this time Central Greece-especially Athens-was distracted by the

Social War. A coalition was formed against that state by Byzantium,

Rhodes, Chios, and Cos; and the efforts of the mother city to suppress

the revolt proved unavailing. The conflict, however, was continued (B. C.

357-355) until Artaxerxes interfered, and Athens was obliged to assent to

the independence of her insurgent dependencies. Meanwhile another

contest, known as the Sacred War, had broken out between Thebes and

Phocis. The people of the latter state had long been held in dislike by

the Thebans, who now, using their great influence in the affairs of

Greece, secured a vote at the Amphictyonic council by which a heavy fine

was imposed on the Phocians, who had-as was alleged-been cultivating a

portion of the consecrated plain of Cirrha.

Phocis, after protesting in vain and being afflicted with a second fine,

flew into a passion, and, under the lead of Philomelus, seized Delphi,

temple, oracle, and all. With the enormous treasures thus secured, the

Phocians bid defiance to the Thebans. Ten thousand mercenaries were

hired, and with this force Philomelus, making his way into Locris,

defeated the army which Thebes had put into