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which the Spartans bore in the great campaign, their heroism in the

battle, their escape from the clutches of the Persians, their celebrated

retreat and return into Europe, have already been recounted in the

History of Persia.

As soon as the great expedition had collapsed, the satrapy held by Cyrus

was conferred on Tissaphernes. The latter began his administration by

attacking the Ionian cities, and the Spartans were obliged to send out an

army under Dercyllidas for their protection. After holding his own for a

year and gaining some advantages over the Persians, he was confronted by

Pharnabazus, who secured the services of Conon the Athenian as commander

of a fleet to operate against the Lacedaemonians.

King Agesilaus himself went to Asia, in B. C. 396, and took command of

the Peloponnesian army. After wintering at Ephesus he advanced upon

Sardis and won a victory over Tissaphernes on the banks of the Pactolus.

The latter was soon afterwards put to death at the instance of Parysatis,

who still proved herself to be the mother of mischief as well as of

Artaxerxes. The satrapy of Lydia was transferred to Tithraustes, and he

soon induced Agesilaus to withdraw into the country of his friend

Pharnabazus, satrap of Phrygia. The latter had always had the confidence

of the Spartans, and he now protested with the king in such manly terms

that the latter was induced to withdraw to Thebe, on the gulf of Elaeus;

and from that place he was soon obliged to repair to Sparta to protect

his own country from impending dangers.

For, in the meantime, the energies of Conon, backed by Persian gold, had

brought into existence and equipped a fleet superior to that of the

Lacedaemonians. The appearance of this armament in the western waters had

the effect to incite in the island of Rhodes a democratic insurrection by

which the oligarchy had been suppressed. Afterwards, in August of B. C.

394, the allied squadron of Sparta and Phoenicia was overtaken at the

peninsula of Cnidus, in Caria, and defeated with a loss of more than half

of the armament. The effect of these successes of the enemies of Sparta

was such as further to weaken her hold upon her dependent states and to

hasten the day of the overthrow of her power.

About this time Timocrates, a prominent Rhodian, was dispatched to the

leading Greek cities, well supplied with Persian gold, to induce a revolt

against the Lacedaemonians. Thebes, Corinth, and Argos were all induced

by his arguments to renounce the Spartan alliance, and hostilities were

almost immediately begun. A quarrel occurred between the Locrians and

Phocians respecting the ownership of a narrow strip of territory, and the

former appealed to Thebes for aid. The Phocians on their part called on

the Spartans for help, and the latter at once responded in full force

under Lysander himself. After devastating the Phocian territory he

proceeded to attack the town of Haliartus, where the insurgents were

posted; but the latter made a desperate sally, defeated the

Lacedaemonians and killed Lysander. In the following night, so complete

was the Theban victory, the invaders disbanded, and left the country. A

few days afterwards, when Pausanias, who expected to join Lysander at

Haliartus, arrived, he found only the unburied Spartan dead of the recent

battle. He was forced by the actual peril of the situation to accept the

terms prescribed by the Thebans and withdraw to his own home. The

victorious insurgents followed in his rear and virtually drove him beyond

the border. Afraid to return to Sparta, the king found a hiding place in

the temple of Athene, at Tegea, and being condemned to death was obliged

to save himself by remaining at the altar of the protecting goddess.

The effect of this decisive reversal of fortune was to strengthen and

encourage the enemies of Spartan rule. Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos

now entered into a formal league against the Lacedaemonians. The

Euboeans, the Ozolian Locrians, the Acarnanians, the Ambracians, the

Leucadians, and the Thracian Chalcidicians were presently added to the

alliance, which now made no ______________________ See Book Sixth, pp.