UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD,
which the Spartans bore in the great campaign, their heroism in the
battle, their escape from the clutches of the Persians, their celebrated
retreat and return into Europe, have already been recounted in the
History of Persia.
As soon as the great expedition had collapsed, the satrapy held by Cyrus
was conferred on Tissaphernes. The latter began his administration by
attacking the Ionian cities, and the Spartans were obliged to send out an
army under Dercyllidas for their protection. After holding his own for a
year and gaining some advantages over the Persians, he was confronted by
Pharnabazus, who secured the services of Conon the Athenian as commander
of a fleet to operate against the Lacedaemonians.
King Agesilaus himself went to Asia, in B. C. 396, and took command of
the Peloponnesian army. After wintering at Ephesus he advanced upon
Sardis and won a victory over Tissaphernes on the banks of the Pactolus.
The latter was soon afterwards put to death at the instance of Parysatis,
who still proved herself to be the mother of mischief as well as of
Artaxerxes. The satrapy of Lydia was transferred to Tithraustes, and he
soon induced Agesilaus to withdraw into the country of his friend
Pharnabazus, satrap of Phrygia. The latter had always had the confidence
of the Spartans, and he now protested with the king in such manly terms
that the latter was induced to withdraw to Thebe, on the gulf of Elaeus;
and from that place he was soon obliged to repair to Sparta to protect
his own country from impending dangers.
For, in the meantime, the energies of Conon, backed by Persian gold, had
brought into existence and equipped a fleet superior to that of the
Lacedaemonians. The appearance of this armament in the western waters had
the effect to incite in the island of Rhodes a democratic insurrection by
which the oligarchy had been suppressed. Afterwards, in August of B. C.
394, the allied squadron of Sparta and Phoenicia was overtaken at the
peninsula of Cnidus, in Caria, and defeated with a loss of more than half
of the armament. The effect of these successes of the enemies of Sparta
was such as further to weaken her hold upon her dependent states and to
hasten the day of the overthrow of her power.
About this time Timocrates, a prominent Rhodian, was dispatched to the
leading Greek cities, well supplied with Persian gold, to induce a revolt
against the Lacedaemonians. Thebes, Corinth, and Argos were all induced
by his arguments to renounce the Spartan alliance, and hostilities were
almost immediately begun. A quarrel occurred between the Locrians and
Phocians respecting the ownership of a narrow strip of territory, and the
former appealed to Thebes for aid. The Phocians on their part called on
the Spartans for help, and the latter at once responded in full force
under Lysander himself. After devastating the Phocian territory he
proceeded to attack the town of Haliartus, where the insurgents were
posted; but the latter made a desperate sally, defeated the
Lacedaemonians and killed Lysander. In the following night, so complete
was the Theban victory, the invaders disbanded, and left the country. A
few days afterwards, when Pausanias, who expected to join Lysander at
Haliartus, arrived, he found only the unburied Spartan dead of the recent
battle. He was forced by the actual peril of the situation to accept the
terms prescribed by the Thebans and withdraw to his own home. The
victorious insurgents followed in his rear and virtually drove him beyond
the border. Afraid to return to Sparta, the king found a hiding place in
the temple of Athene, at Tegea, and being condemned to death was obliged
to save himself by remaining at the altar of the protecting goddess.
The effect of this decisive reversal of fortune was to strengthen and
encourage the enemies of Spartan rule. Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos
now entered into a formal league against the Lacedaemonians. The
Euboeans, the Ozolian Locrians, the Acarnanians, the Ambracians, the
Leucadians, and the Thracian Chalcidicians were presently added to the
alliance, which now made no ______________________ See Book Sixth, pp.