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escaping. The remainder were either captured or destroyed. The prisoners,

to the number of three or four thousand, including the generals-with the

exception of Conon, who escaped and found a hiding-place in Cyprus- were

condemned and put to death! The whole force was annihilated.

Athens was left without a shadow of defense, except what measures she

could extemporize, against the coming doom. When the Paralus (1) arrived

at Piraeus and the news was known, there was universal despair. Xenophon

declares that on that night no man slept. It was now a question of

existence with her who had so long been mistress of the sea. Two out of

the three harbors of the city were blocked up in the vain hope of

defending the third. Lysander was in no haste. The Athenian supplies from

the Euxine were wholly cut off, and from afar Famine and Sparta both

lifted as word against the doomed city.

Beginning his progress towards the capital, Lysander compelled the

garrisons of the various towns en route to quit their places and repair

to Athens. In every city the democratic form of government was

overthrown, and an oligarchy, consisting of ten members with a Spartan

Harmost at the head, appointed in its stead. In their desperation the

people of Athens gathered in an assembly and voted a general amnesty. The

prisons were opened, and all except a few of the worst criminals were

liberated. Then the oligarchic and democratic factions swore an oath of

mutual forgiveness, and agreed henceforth to labor only for the common


Finally, Lysander made his appearance. With a fleet of one hundred and

fifty galleys he landed at AEgina, and then proceeded to blockade

Piraeus. Salamis was ravaged by the army, which marched without

opposition to the very gates of Athens. Inside the walls, however,

determination was mixed with despair, and the first proposals made to

them by the Spartans were rejected. The people began to die of hunger,

and yet Archestratus was imprisoned for proposing to accept the proffered

terms. After three months of dreadful suffering, the spirit of the people

was at last completely broken, and Theramenes was sent to Sparta to

conclude with the Ephors the best treaty which they would grant.

The states in alliance with the Lacedaemonians, more particularly Corinth

and Thebes, insisted that the very name of Athens should be blotted out,

and the residue of her population sold into slavery; but the Spartans

themselves interfered to prevent so brutal a proceeding. One of the

Ephors even ventured on a figure of speech, and declared that Sparta

would never consent that one of the eyes of Greece should be put out.

Still the terms were sufficiently severe and humiliating. The Long Walls

of Athens should be thrown down. The fortifications of the Piraeus and

Phalerum should be razed. The territorial limits of the Athenians should

be contracted to Attica. All foreign possessions should be given up. All

ships of war should be surrendered. All exiles should be unconditionally

restored. The Athenians should become the allies of the Spartans. These

terms, hard as they were, were immediately accepted by the assembly, and

it only remained for the Athenians to comply with the conditions.

The winter had now worn away. In March of B. C. 404, the city was

formally surrendered. It was the last act in a war which, through every

grade of ferocity, had continued for twenty-seven years. Lysander at once

proceeded to exact the fulfillment of the terms of the treaty. The dock-

yards were burned and the arsenals destroyed. All the Athenian galleys

except twelve were sent to Sparta. Then came the demolition of the

fortifications. It was no light task, for the works were of great

solidity and massiveness. The overthrow of the Long Walls was a task

tedious and difficult. But the Spartans, in mockery, converted the work

into a festival! Bands of flute-players and dancers wreathed with flowers

accompanied the workmen, and as the heavy stones were pried from their

beds and cast down, shout after shout echoed the downfall of Athenian

glory. Nor did the demolition cease until not one stone was left upon

another. She who, by the splendor of ________________________________

1The Paralus was the commander's galley in an Athenian fleet,

corresponding to the flag-ship in a modern navy.