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UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE ANCIENT WORLD.

company were the orator Lysias and the historian Herodotus. In B. C. 437,

another settlement of equal importance was made at Amphipolis, on the

river Strymon, in Macedonia-a dependency which afterwards played a

conspicuous part in Greek history.

A more liberal and less ambitious policy on the part of Pericles might

have postponed or possibly averted the coming disasters of his country.

But, in his eagerness to make Athens glorious, there was but little

thought given to justice and equity of administration. Especially was

this manifested in the exorbitant tribute which was collected from the

Athenian dependencies. The members of the Confederacy of Delos were taxed

to the extent of six hundred talents annually, and this too when the

occasion for which the tribute was originally levied had entirely passed

away. The peace with the Persians made such an imposition no longer

necessary as a measure of defense; but the ambition of Pericles still

exacted it as a measure of luxury.

At this time the only members of the Confederacy which retained their

freedom and continued to consult with the Athenians on terms of

comparative equality, were Samos, Lesbos, and Chios. The first of these

islands became embroiled with the Milesians, and the latter appealed to

Athens for a settlement of the difficulty. The Samian government was

still under the control of an oligarchy, and this furnished Pericles with

a good excuse for interference. In B. C. 440 an expedition was sent to

reduce the Samians by force. A democracy was established in the island,

and many leading Samians were sent to Lemnos as hostages. This state of

things, however, was soon undone by a counter revolution backed by the

satrap of Sardis; but the Athenians returned, put down the revolt, and

reestablished their own style of government over the Samians. The latter

were obliged to pay the expenses of the war, amounting to a thousand

talents, and to give hostages for the maintenance of the peace.

Such was the condition of affairs in B. C. 435, when a petty quarrel

between Corinth and her dependency Corcyra applied the spark to the long

smoldering animosities and jealousies of the Greeks, and set their

country in the flames of civil war.

CHAPTER XLVL-THE PELOPONNESIAN WARS.

Early in her history the city of Corinth had established, on the island

of that name, the colony of Corcyra. Afterwards Corcyra sent out a colony

and founded Epidamnus on the coast of Epirus. The latter, however, as

well as the former, regarded Corinth as her mother city. The Epidamnians,

like the other Greek states, expelled the oligarchic party, and the

latter brought in the Illyrians to restore them. The authorities appealed

to Corcyra for aid, which was refused; for the Corcyraeans sympathized

with the oligarchs. The Epidamnians then applied to Corinth. The latter

sent out an expedition, and the democracy in Epidamnus was sustained. But

the authorities of Corcyra resented the interference, sent a squadron,

blockaded the town, and restored the oligarchs. The Corcyraeans then

tried to persuade the Corinthians to refer the matter to arbitration, but

the latter sent a still larger fleet to the western coast, and this was

defeated and destroyed by the Corcyraean squadron at Actium. This left

the Epidamnians at the mercy of the oligarchic party.

The Corinthians immediately went to work rebuilding their fleet. Within

two years they had gathered with their own exertions and from their

allies a squadron of one hundred and fifty ships. The Corcyraeans, seeing

these preparations and remembering that Corinth was a member of the

Lacedaemonian league, applied to Athens for support. The Athenian