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were tossed into dust and oblivion. The dreams of him who three times

daily at his own command was reminded to remember the Athenians, and the

proud visions of his son, cherished from the palace of Susa to the

Hellespont, and from the Hellespont to Thessaly, had been so completely

dissipated that no ambitious imagination of Oriental king or general ever

did again evoke them from the shadows.


No general of the Greeks ever showed himself less able than Pausanias to

bear success with equanimity. After the battle of Plataea, he began at

once to display his vanity, his insolence, his disloyalty. He hired

Simonides, the poet, to attribute the victory solely to himself; and a

like piece of vainglory was manifested in an inscription which he caused

to be placed on a tripod at the shrine of Delphi. Still he remained in

command of the Spartan army, and conducted a successful campaign against

Byzantium. At the capture of this place, several members of the royal

household fell into his power. This fact furnished him with an

opportunity to open negotiations with the Persian court, involving his

own perfidy and treason. He sent privately to Xerxes the members of his

family, and at the same time gave it out to his own countrymen that his

high born Persian captives had escaped. Along with this princely present

to the Great King, he sent to him a letter to the following effect:

"Pausanias, the Spartan commander, wishing to oblige thee, sends back

these prisoners of war. I am minded, if it please thee, to marry thy

daughter and to bring Sparta and the rest of Greece under thy dominion.

This I hold myself able to do with the help of thy counsels. If,

therefore, the project at all pleases thee, send down some trustworthy

man to the coast through whom we may carry on our future correspondence."

This letter, being so full of perfidy, was of precisely the kind to

delight a Persian monarch-particularly Xerxes. He immediately responded

in a manner highly flattering to Pausanias. The princess was promised to

him in marriage; lavish supplies of money were sent forward, and he was

urged to prosecute his plans as rapidly as possible, with the assurance

that the king of Persia would not be slow in supplying all his needs. It

was in the nature of Pausanias to discount his prospects. He began to

realize on the possible by assuming the dress and manners of a Persian

prince. His command of the fleet was in that style of elaborate flummery

peculiar to eastern officers. This thing was from the first exceedingly

distasteful to the captains and seamen of the allied fleet. The news

reached Sparta, and that sedate commonwealth, shocked at the shameless

disloyalty of her officer, immediately dispatched Dorcis to supersede

him. But before the arrival of the latter, the captains of the fleet,

disgusted with the conduct of Pausanias, had themselves transferred the

command from him to the Athenians.

Such, however, was the strict subordination of the Spartans to authority

that the larger part of their squadron accompanied the disgraced

Pausanias on his return home. This left Dorcis with so few ships at his

disposal that he could not resist the transfer of the command to the

fleet of Athens, which ever since the battle of Salamis had given to that

city a preponderating reputation and influence in the affairs of Greece.

This circumstance became the central fact in the Athenian Supremacy. The

Ionian cities of Asia Minor and most of the adjacent islands, inhabited

as they were by people of the same race with the Athenians, were well

pleased with this increase of power on the part of their kinsmen