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GREECE.-GROWTH AND LAW.

the redistribution of the population. By this plan the aggregate

citizenship of the state was vastly increased in numbers, and the

increase nearly all went to the credit of the democracy. The new

distribution was not based upon class-distinctions, but on territory, the

only true basis of political division. The territory of each tribe was

called a deme, and every person living within the district was obliged to

enroll himself as a citizen. Each deme managed its local affairs in its

own way, and had its own magistrate, called the Demarchus.

Another change introduced by Clisthenes was the enlargement of the senate

to five hundred members, or fifty from each tribe. The powers of the body

were also multiplied, so that a good share of the administration of the

state was included in its functions. It sat the year around, and was

presided over by the senators in turn. The Ecclesia, or assembly, met

forty times a year, and was also presided over by certain senators

detailed for that duty. The general effect of the whole movement directed

by Clisthenes was to transfer the government from Archons, or governors,

to the people, and to substitute for the close and arbitrary methods of

the oligarchy the open discussions of a public assembly, thus preparing

the way for the age of Pericles.

The military arrangement was based upon the tribal distribution. Each

tribe elected its own general, so that an Athenian army was generally

commanded by ten officers of equal rank. The old rank of Polemarch,

however, was retained from the times of the Archon to the date of the

Persian wars. It will readily be seen that the efficiency of an

Athenian army would depend rather upon valor and discipline than upon

generalship, for no generalship could well be developed under a system

which required each commanding officer to be general for a day and to

give place to another on the morrow.

The condition of affairs in Athens was now such as to afford unusual

opportunities for the ambitious citizen to become first a demagogue and

then a despot. As a counterpoise against this danger, Clisthenes

introduced the Ostracism. The plan was, in brief, to banish by a