GREECE.-GROWTH AND LAW.
the redistribution of the population. By this plan the aggregate
citizenship of the state was vastly increased in numbers, and the
increase nearly all went to the credit of the democracy. The new
distribution was not based upon class-distinctions, but on territory, the
only true basis of political division. The territory of each tribe was
called a deme, and every person living within the district was obliged to
enroll himself as a citizen. Each deme managed its local affairs in its
own way, and had its own magistrate, called the Demarchus.
Another change introduced by Clisthenes was the enlargement of the senate
to five hundred members, or fifty from each tribe. The powers of the body
were also multiplied, so that a good share of the administration of the
state was included in its functions. It sat the year around, and was
presided over by the senators in turn. The Ecclesia, or assembly, met
forty times a year, and was also presided over by certain senators
detailed for that duty. The general effect of the whole movement directed
by Clisthenes was to transfer the government from Archons, or governors,
to the people, and to substitute for the close and arbitrary methods of
the oligarchy the open discussions of a public assembly, thus preparing
the way for the age of Pericles.
The military arrangement was based upon the tribal distribution. Each
tribe elected its own general, so that an Athenian army was generally
commanded by ten officers of equal rank. The old rank of Polemarch,
however, was retained from the times of the Archon to the date of the
Persian wars. It will readily be seen that the efficiency of an
Athenian army would depend rather upon valor and discipline than upon
generalship, for no generalship could well be developed under a system
which required each commanding officer to be general for a day and to
give place to another on the morrow.
The condition of affairs in Athens was now such as to afford unusual
opportunities for the ambitious citizen to become first a demagogue and
then a despot. As a counterpoise against this danger, Clisthenes
introduced the Ostracism. The plan was, in brief, to banish by a