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laid the foundations of those cities which were afterwards joined in the

Aeolian Confederation.

More important by far was the migration of the Ionians. These people had

been expelled by the Achaeans from their native seats on the Corinthian

Gulf, and had sought refuge in Attica. Here they were joined by others of

the same race, just as the AEolians had gathered head in Boeotia. Many

strangers, exiles, and refugees also assembled with the emigrants who

departing from Attica were led by the family of Codrus, the last king of

Athens, to their chosen homes among the Cyclades and on the coast of Asia

Minor. Here was founded the Ionian Confederation. The country in which

the cities of this league were located lay along the shore from the river

Hermus to the Meander, and has already been described in the Book on the

History of Persia. The two principal islands belonging to Ionia were

Chios and Samos, with which were included many others of smaller

importance. Twelve cities in this part of Asiatic Greece belonged to the

confederation, many of them of great importance both commercially and


In the partition of Peloponnesus it happened that some of the Dorian

chiefs could not be provided with a "kingdom" on the main-land of Greece.

For this reason, they with their followers and many of the native

Achaeans, also left the country and established themselves in Asia Minor.

The part of the coast selected lay to the south of Ionia, and included

the two important islands of Rhodes and Cos. In the former three of the

six cities belonging to the colonies known as the Doric Hexapolis were

founded-Lindus, Ialysus, and Camirus. On the mainland were situated the

two important towns of Halicarnassus and Cnidus.

So runs the tradition of the various migrations-Dorian, Ionian, AEolian--

which occurred at the close of the Heroic Age of Greece. These narratives

can not be accepted without many grains of allowance. It is now well

known that Ionia was the oldest civilized state of the Greeks, and that

enlightenment spread westward from the shores of Asia

Minor, until, diffused among the Cyclades, it finally flashed its

radiance into Hellas Proper. From this it will be seen that the only

rational view to be taken of the alleged migrations from the West is that

which represents the Ionians of the main-land, disturbed by the movement

of the Dorians from the North, as going back and settling among their own

countrymen, already for a long time the dominant people on the coast of

Asia Minor. Nor is there any thing incongruous in this view of the case;

for people, when driven by invasion from their homes, are just as likely

to return to their kinsmen as to strike out into unoccupied regions.

Criticism, therefore, simply demands that the migration of the AEolians,

Ionians, and Dorians shall be read the return of the AEolians, etc.,

which is, indeed, the very language given by tradition to the movement of

the Heraclidae from the North into Peloponnesus.

The colonies sent out by the Greeks in these early times were not all

directed to the Cyclades and Asia Minor. Tradition also describes a

migration of Dorians into Crete. This island had been the scene of many

prehistoric wonders. Here Minos, the great lawgiver and hero, had

established his institutions in the old mythological dawn, when Zeus's

love for Europa gave a benefactor to men before the days of Deucalion.

For that fabulous navigator was the son of Minos. He, having from his

father a pledge that all of his prayers should be granted, and aspiring

to be king of Crete, prayed that a bull might come from the sea as a

sacrifice for Poseidon. But when the animal appeared he was so beautiful

that another was led to the altar instead of that sent. Poseidon was

offended, and as a punishment afflicted the wife of Minos by inspiring

her with an insane passion for the bull. So was born the monster

Minotaur, whom Minos shut up in the Cnossian Labyrinth. He then obtained

the throne of Crete and became famed as a law-giver. From him Lycurgus

was said to have obtained the models of those institutions which he gave

the Spartans. So into Crete, at the close of the Heroic Age, a band of

Dorians, driven by Sparta from the town of Amyclae, was led